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FEB '^6 1991 









T) ORTABLE timepieces were made as 
-t early as 1515 in Nuremberg by Peter 
Henlein and probably somewhat earlier in 
France. The earlier pieces were quite 
crude mechanisms with decorative casings. 
The improvement in the mechanisms or 
movements did not keep pace with the ar- 
tistic expression of the cases, the latter 
reaching the heights of artistic beauty in 
painting and enameling and decoration be- 
tween 1650 and 1750. 

The introduction of watch making in 
England was somewhat prior to 1600. and 

the progress of the watch as a timekeeper 
owes more to that country than to any 
other from 1/00 to 1800. 

The earliest watches differed mechani- 
cally from clocks only in size and the sub- 
stitution of the spiral spring for the driv- 
ing weight. The clock began to approach 
accurate timekeeping with the invention 
of the pendulum about 1657 by the great 
Dutch physicist, Huyghens, and the watch 
with the introduction of the balance spring 
by the great English physicist, Robert 
Hooke, about 1660. The gradual addition 
of improvements to the watch to overcome 
apparently insuperable difficulties is a won- 
derful story of achievement, till today it is 
the mechanical marvel ne plus ultra. The 
tracing of the growth of this marvel has 
been primarily the object of collecting the 
examples herein briefly described. 

For the information of the layman, it 
may be well to point out that the watch 
movement consists of a motor or storage 
battery, the mainspring, the train of geared 
wheels large and small, (the latter called 
pinions) and the escapement which retards 
or regulates the speed at which the main- 
spring runs down after winding. To go 
into a little harmless technology, the first 
wheel or barrel contains the mainspring, 


the second wheel carries the minute hand, 
the third wheel has no function but to in- 
crease the ratio of the train, the fourth 
wheel carries the seconds hand, and then 
comes the escape wheel, which can move 
only as fast as the escapement or soul of 
the watch will allow. It is here that the 
great miracle has been wrought with enor- 
mous outlay of thought and experiment 
continuing now over two hundred years. 
The pendulum of the watch is the balance 
wheel, which turns first in one direction 
and then returns, each time winding up and 
unwinding the balance spring, which is 
so delicate that it frequently is called the 
hairspring. The desideratum of the per- 
fect watch is that the balance shall vibrate 
with absolute uniformity of time unaffected 
by position, temperature or strength of 
winding. The swing is greatest after 
winding, but the time of swing must be 
the same at all times. 


The train of wheels in the older watches 
were held between two plates, known as 
the top plate and the pillar plate, the lat- 
ter being adjacent to the dial and carrying 


pillars which held the plates the proper 
distance apart. The balance wheel or bal- 
ance was ph.ced above the top plate, its 
top pivot being carried by a cock which 
was the subject of great adornment, and 
its lower pivot by a cock under the top 
plate, called the potence. The second wheel 
of the train, usually the center wheel, car- 
ries the minute hand on its arbor. Be- 
tween the pillar plate and the dial is a 
reducing train of two wheels with two 
pinions, known as the motion wheels, which 
reduces the speed of the wheel which car- 
ries the hour hand. To reduce the thick- 
ness of the watch, a portion of the top 
plate was cut away, and the top pivot of 
the balance was held by a cock attached 
to the pillar plate. This arrangement was 
known as "three-quarter plate." Another 
change was displacing the top plate en- 

tirely by bridges or cocks, each carrying 
one or more bearings or jewels for pivots. 
The earliest form of escapement was the 
verge and it was still made as late as 1870. 
It was always influenced by the force of 
the spring. Very early in the history of 
watch making there was devised a conical 
wheel called a "fusee" on which was wound 
a cord or chain, the other end of which 
was wound around the spring barrel. 
When the spring was wound up the chain 
pulled on the small diameter of the fusee 
and as the force of the spring became less 
the pull was on increasingly larger diam- 
eters of the fusee thus equalizing to some 
extent the power on the train. The es- 
capement was however not a reliable time- 
keper. In the period from 1730 to 1765, 
great advancement was made in escape- 
ments, Tompion, Graham, Mudge, Earn- 

shaw and Arnold in England brought out 
the cylinder, chronometer, duplex and lever, 
and across the channel Le Roy, Lepine, 
Hauteville, Dutertre, Berthoud and Bre- 
guet worked along similar lines. The 
credit as in most inventions cannot be 
ascribed definitely as so frequently quite 
as much depends on the successful work- 
ing out of the experiment as on the con- 
ception The duplex had much success and 
favor in England, though originating in 
France, while the cylinder, originating in 
England, was more popular in France and 
Switzerland. The chronometer escape- 
ment, because of its freedom from the vari- 
able influence of the driving pressure, was 
very attractive to experimenters every- 
where, but finally gave way to the detached 
lever for fine watches, though still retained 
for marine timepieces. The past hundred 
>ears has seen advance largely in elim- 
inating unsound hypotheses and perfecting 
methods and machinery to make at lower 
cost that which formerly required more 
personal skill. Methods of multiple manu- 
facture have had greatest growth in Amer- 
ica, where, strange to say, little has been 
developed horologically. 

The period covered by examples in this 
collection is from about 1700 to 1880. The 
aim of the collector has been to show pri- 
marily the ? solution of the watch as a 
timekeeper. There are however a consid- 
erable number showing the elaborate orna- 
mentation of cases in enamel, tortoise shell, 
repousse, pierced and lacquer work. 

The student of horology will take pleas- 
ure in examining examples by such masters 
as Breguet, Arnold, Lepine, LeRoy, Mudge, 
Graham, Frocsham, Jurgensen, etc. ; the de- 
velopment from the heavy, bulky watch of 
1700 to the thin, wafer-like movement of 
about 1820, and the return to sensible pro- 
portions of later date. 

The experiments shown in balance 
springs begin with the small numbered 
spiral, extending through the cylindrical 
spring of Houriet, the combined spiral and 
cylinder of Hammersley, the wide sweep 
over coil of Frodsham, the double spring of 
some unknown experimenter and the mod- 
ern Breguet over coil, with Philip's ter- 

In escapements may be found those which 
have had considerable vogue, such as verge, 
cylinder, duplex, rack lever, chronometer, 


detached lever, and many others unfamiliar 
even to most watchmakers. One example 
marked Breguet, and another by Arnold, 
have cylinders made most exquisitely of 
ruby or sapphire. 

In devices for winding, intervening be- 
tween the key wind and the stem wind, 
may be seen the pump or lever wind, the 
perpetual wind on the pedometer principle, 
depending on the motion of the body, the 
watch which winds by closing the case, and 
one in which the winding is effected by 
pulling out the stem. 

In the examples of American make may 
be counted some forty dififerent firms or 
factories, beginning with Jacob Custer, who 
made watches of his own design and patent 
in Norristown, Pa., as early as 1843. Strik- 
ing watches, repeaters, calendars, musical 
watches, mystery watches and other curi- 



osities of the watchmakers' art too numer- 
ous to mention, may be seen. 

All together, there are in excess of two 
hundred and ninet}' pieces, some of in- 
terest in their entirety and others for 
some special feature not alwa3's apparent 
without examination. 

The following collections have examples 
of makers represented by the numbering 
appended, referring to descriptions given 
herewith : 

George H. Abbot, Groton, Mass.. ..98 

Edwin P. Baker, referred to by 
Britten 4-55 

Ralph Bernal Collection, auctioned 
in London in 1855 62 

British Museum, London 26-81-151 

Imperial Collection, Hermitage Gal- 
lery, Petrograd, Russia 26-151 

Franklin Dennison Collection, Bir- 
mingham, England 1-10-33-37-52- 


Dr. Tad Estreicher, Fribourg. Swit- 
zerl.ind 37 

Moyer Fleisher Collection, Memo- 
rial Hall, Philadelphia 4-55-122-124- 

Dunn-Gardner Collection, auctioned 

1902 in London 150 

Guildhall Museum, London 26-64-81-122 

Hearn Collection, Metropolitan 

Museum, New York 122 

Hawkins Collection, auctioned 1895 

in London 56 

Martin Heckscher Collection, Vienna. 32 
Robert Hoe Collection, auctioned in 

New York in 1901 122 

lefferson D. Jenkins Collection, De- 
catur, 111 26-32 

South Ke-nsington, Museum, London. 12-33-62-98- 

L. O. Liljigren Collection, Chicago. . 23-75 

Carl Marfels Collection, Berlin 32-37-59-150 

Bloomfield- Moore Collection, Memo- 
rial Hall, Philadelphia 52-69-85-122 

J. Pierpont Morgan Collection at 

Metropolitan Museum 93-123 

Rev. H. L. Nelthropp Collection at 

Guildhall Museum, London 4-16-22-33-37- 

F. G. Hilton Price Collection, sold 

to J. Pierpont Morgan 10-26-33-95- 

J. T. and T. R. Proctor Collections, 

Utica, N. Y 1-10-26-33-52- 

Major R. H. Raymond Smythies, 

London 12 

Lord Wallace Collection, British 

Museum 81-151 

VVillard H. Wheeler, Collection, 

Brooklyn, N. Y 10-32-33-52- 


No. l^Verge, carved pillars, pierced 
balance cock with ruby cap jewel, foot of 
cock and scroll chased, but not pierced, 
fusee with inside ratchet, screw adjusted 
potence and counter potence. Movement 
engraved "Ge. Prior London.'' No en- 
graved number, but pillar plate is stamp- 
ed 02756. There was a George Prior in 
business 1765 to 1810. 

No. 2 — Verge, carved pillars, cock foot 
and scroll pierced and carved, carved lock- 
ing bar spring, outside ratchet fusee, worm 
gear set-up. Plate engraved "T. Betson, 
London, No. 1438." Made probably about 

No. 3 — Verge, turned pillars, chased foot 
and scroll and pierced balance guard, in- 
side ratchet for fusee wheel, ratchet set-up 
for spring arbor, diamond end stone, beau- 
tiful workmanship. Made by "Des Gran- 
ges, Late Louis Recordon, London, No. 
8971." Des Granges was at 3 Cockspur 
St., 1816-42. 

No. 4 — Verge originally, but later con- 
verted to detached lever, general descrip- 
tion similar to No. 3. Plate engraved 
"James McCabe, London, No. 4896." Mc- 
Cabe came from Belfast and was in London 
from 1778 to 1811. His best watches were 
"James McCabe," second grade "McCabe" 
and third grade "Beatson." 

No. 5 — Called frequently "Chinese Du- 
plex," perhaps because they appealed to the 
oriental eye and market. They were made 
largely in Fleurier, Switzerland, though 
many of them bear English names on the 
dial. The escapement, invented by Ch. Ed. 
Jacot of Chaux-de-Fonds, is a form of du- 
plex giving four swings to the second, the 
center seconds hand jumping a second 
division during fourth swing. Period of 
about 1840-60. 

No. 6 — Skeleton plate with initials worked 
in the scroll. Bottom plate stamped W6326. 
Workmanship fair, probably French or 

No. 7. — Early example ot dust band held 
in place with screws. Escapement verge 
with calendar dial. Maker : "Borle, a la 
Chaux-de-Fond." No. 2946. Made prob- 
ably about 1840. 

No. 8 — Applied pierced scroll work over 
entire top plate. Initials worked in scroll 
of bridge. Pillars carved or filed, which 
would usually indicate an earlier period 
than the rest of the work ; may have been 
made as late as 1840. 

No. 9 — Verge, carved pillars, solid foot 
balance cock, worm screw set-up for spring 
arbor. "Jas. Cowan, Edinburgh, No. 486." 
Cowan was apprenticed in 1744 and later 
spent some time with Le Roy in Paris. 
Watch made probably between 1750 and 
1760. The workmanship is very good and 
bears the marks of individuality. 

No. 10 — Cylinder, carved pillars, solid 
foot balance cock, worm screw set-up for 
spring arbor. Dust cap. "George Graham, 
London, No. 104." Graham is usually ac- 
corded the credit of perfecting the cylin- 
der escapement, although the substitution 
of steel scape wheel for the brass scape 
of the English was probably of Swiss 
origin. Graham succeeded his patron, 
Thomas Tompion, in 1713, and the example 
of his work here shown may have been 
made as late as 1725, after the expiration 
of the patents of Booth, Houghton and 
Tompion, but a watch by him, bearing the 





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' ^^^^^pijWBIMBlWffr*'' 


number 445, noted by Britten, is assigned 
to 1714. 

No. 11 — Club footed verge, turned pil- 
lars, plain top plate, friction regulator as 
patented by Bosley in 17S5, carved bridge, 
exposed spring with no fusee and modifica- 
tion of Debaufre's escapement. "Thos. 
Houghton, Chorley No. 395." There was 
a James Houghton in business at Ormskirk, 
a neighboring town to Chorley, from 1800 
to 1820, maker of this same form of escape- 

No. 12 — Cylinder movement engraved 
"Thos. Grignion, Covent Garden, London, 
No. 1432." Grignion was born 1713, and 
died 1784. His son ascribed to him the 
honor of perfecting the cylinder escape- 
ment in 1740. The Gardner, Dennison and 
South Kensington Collections each have an 
example of Grignion's work. 

No. 13 — Verge, deep set, carved and 
pierced balance cock, pierced foot and 
scrolls, lock spring nib orig'nally projected 
through dial, which had also calendar 
circle. The escapement is the same as was 

used on the first watches about 1500. The 
fusee or conical winding wheel introduced 
about 1525 by Jacob Zech, of Prague, the 
chain substituted for the catgut by Gruet 
of Geneva in 1590, the balance spring in- 
vented by Hooke in 1658, and generally 
used by 1700, the form of regulator by 
Tompion about 1660, the minute hand 
about 1687, brings the watch to about this 
example made by "Sabourin, London," 
about 1700. 

No. 14 — Cylinder, brass scape, solid bal- 
ance cock, ratchet set-up for spring arbor, 
Harrison maintaining spring, steel balance, 
Bosley regulator, turned pillars, dust cap, 
end cap jewel of rose diamond, a fine piece 
of work by "Mackenzie, London, No. 568," 
made about 1800. Escapement perfected by 
Graham about 1725. 

No. 15 — Duplex, similar in general de- 
scription to No. 2 but with escapement in- 
vented and developed by J. B. Dutertre, of 
Paris, 1750-1780, Thomas Tyrer, of Cler- 
kenwell, 1782. This example was made by 
"David Morice, Fenchurch St., London, 
No. 4264," about 1800. 

No. 16 — Rack lever, similar in general 
description to 14 and 15, but with escape- 
ment claimed by John Hautefeuille of 
Paris, in 1722, and patented in England by 
Peter Litherland in 1791, the anchor part 
of the escapement having been invented by 
Robert Hooke in 1675. This example was 
made by "Litherland, Davies & Co., Liver- 
pool, No. 7992," about 1816. Many of 
these watches were sold in the United 

No. 17 — Chronometer. The invention of 
this escapement is attributed to Julien Le 
Roy of Paris 1765, Thomas Earnshaw in 
1803, John Arnold 1772. Arnold patented 
the helical spring in 1775, and the detent in 
1782, invented simultaneously by Earnshaw, 
whose form is used at the present day. 
This example was made about 1860 by 
"Joseph Sewill, 61 South Castle St., Liver 
pool, No. 23159." 

No. 18 — Detached lever. The invention 
of this escapement is quite universally 
accorded to Thomas Mudge, who succeeded 
George Graham in 1751, and devised the 
detached lever, it being an evolution of the 
rack lever, all but two teeth of the rack 
being removed and all but one of the 
pinion, with the addition of the safety 

O I 2 3-^5 


roller. This example was made by "Jos'h 
Johnson, Liverpool, No. 7549," about 1825. 
No. 19 — Movement with duplex escape- 
ment made by "Thomas Buchanan, Dublin, 
No. 1655." This is a splendid example of 
the highest perfection of the duplex escape- 
ment. The compensation is effected ^y a 
curb, which, of bimetal construction, moves 
the regulator pins in and out with change 
of temperature. This watch was within a 
few years giving excellent service for a 
railroad man. The movement was made 
about 1820. 

No. 20 — Verge escapement by "Finer & 
Nowland, London, No. 3644." This firm 
was at 5 Hatton Garden, 1800-5, and 48 
High Holborn, 1808-23. 

No. 21 — A very early lever escapement 
by "Thos. Hamlet, London, No. 4138." 
Thomas Hamlet was in partnership with 
Francis Lambert in 1800. Given by Britten, 
1795-1832, 1 and 2 Princes St., Soho, maker 




of a gold horizontal watch for the Duke of 

No. 22 — Very beautiful quarter repeater 
with ruby or sapphire cylinder by 


"Barrauds, Cornhill, London, No. .'' 


Barraud & Sons were at 85 Cornhill, 1813- 

No. 23 — Verge, continental form of bal- 
ance bridge with crown and monogram of 
Gustavus III. worked into scroll of bridge, 
regulator similar to tnat patented in Eng- 
land by Bosley in 1755, marked "Sent" and 
"Fort" inside ratchet for fusee wheel and 
ratchet set-up. Made by "Eric Wellenius, 
Norrkoping, No. 294," about 1774. 

No. 24 — Verge, convened to detached 
lever. Bridge has worked into scroll 
initials C. E. O., regulator the continental 
form of that devised by Barrow, marked 
"F" and "S." Plate engraved "Carl Er. 
Orbin, Stockholm, No. 563." 

No. 25 — Verge escapement marked 
"Vellerius" (Scandinavian). Top and pillar 
plate milled on edge. 

No. 26 — ^Cylinder, steel escape and going 
barrel, modern regulator planted on balance 
cock marked "S" and "G." Plate engraved 
"H. L. Montandon, Kiobenhavn." 

No. 27 — Sweep second and quarter 
second hands, driven by separate main- 
spring, compensated balance, 27 jewels. 
"Jules Emmery, Sagne." 

No. 28 — Sweep second and fifth second 
hands, driven by separate mainspring. The 
compensation for heat and cold is effected 
by a "curb" which, under change of tem- 
perature, moves the balance spring pins 
closer or further apart, a device used by 
Harrison on his prize timekeeper. There 
is also on the balance bridge a "parachute," 
an invention of Breguet's, being a spring to 
carry end jewels of balance staff so that 
sudden shocks may not break pivots. 

No. 29 — Sweep second and fly back, stem 
wind. Plate engraved "Agassiz, No 

No. 30 — Sweep second and fly back, stem 
wind, made by American Watch Co., 
Waltham. Plate engraved "Woerds Patents- 
Patented Oct. 3, 1876. and Sept. 28, 1880. 
Patented in England Aug. 6, 1880. Pat. 
Pinion, No. 1583425." 

No. 31 — Verge, inside ratchet on fusee 
wheel, turned pillars, rather plain balance 
bridge, end jewel, winding post supported 
by cock, potence and counter potence screw 
adjusted, plate engraved (fictitiously) 
"Breguet a Paris." Breguet was one of 
the most celebrated watchmakers the world 
has known. Was born 1747, and died 1823. 

No. 32— "Dutertre a Paris." Small verge, 
diameter of a quarter of a dollar. Jean 
Baptiste Dutertre, Paris, 1750-80, is given 
credit for the invention of the Duplex 
Escapement. This movement may have 
been made by him or his sons. 

No. 33— "Romilly a Paris," 1714-96. Beau- 
tiful steel hour hand, top plate skeleton. 
His place of business was in the Place 
Dauphine. He advocated 8-day watches, 
also watches with cylinder escapements and 
very large balances to vibrate seconds, also 
equation watches. 

No. 34 — Verge engraved (fictitiously) 
"Lepine a Paris." Jean Antoine Lepine 
was born in 1720 and died in 1814. He was 
watchmaker to Louis XV. and in 1770 in- 
troduced bars for carrying the upper pivots 
of a watch train instead of a top plate, dis- 
pensed with the fusee, used the cylinder 
escapement and a mainspring barrel arbor 
supported at one end only. 

No. 35 — English lever by "Wm. Coopei, 

No. 36 — "Quartier au Locle." Carved 
edges on top plate. Patent lever. Oriental 

No. 37 — Cylinder, dust cap, steel scape, 
calendar dial, engraved "Eardley Norton, 
London, No. 5518," diameter, 24 lignes, 
thickness without minute arbor, 5/^ inch. 
Eardley Norton was at 49 St. John St., 
Clerkenwell, 1760-94. 

No. 38 — Very small verge movement, 
about the diameter of a 25-cent piece. 

No. 39 — Verge, Bosley icguiator, ratchet 
set-up, inside ratchet for fusee wheel, dia- 
mond end stone, plate engraved "G. Robin- 
son. London, No. 1900." There was a G 
Robinson in London in 1806. 

No. 40 — Verge, pierced foot and scroll, 
carved pillars, carved locking spring, out- 
side ratchet on fusee wheel, dial painted 
with shipping scene, probably made for 
Dutch market; had originally worm gear 
set-up, but replaced with ratchet, a not un- 
common change seen on watches used in 
Holland. Plate engraved "Rich. Holyer, 
London, No. 6182." Made probably before 

No. 41 — Verge, solid cock, ruby end stone, 
Bosley regulator, turned pillars, inside 
ratchet in fusee wheel, ratchet set up for 
spring arbor. Plate engraved "W. J. Up- 
john, St. Johns Square, London," no 

- ' -+- 




number. Upjohn was at this address 1815- 

No. 42 — -Verge, very similar to No. 3. 
Plate engraved "Thos. Savage, London." 
There was a Thomas Savage at 3 Red Lion 
St., 1816-40. 

No. 43 — Verge movement, quarter hour 
repeater, silver composition bell ; wide 
"brass edge"; locking bar nib originally 
projected through dial, which had calendar 
circle. Elaborately carved and pierced work 
on balance cock and scroll. Repeating 
mechanism is wound with rack operated 
from pendant. Dust cap engraved "De 
Putter, Amsterdam, 1721." The early re- 
peaters, invented by Barlow and by Quare 
about 1686, were made with rack winding 
which gave considerable trouble, and later 
a chain was used. The chain was later 
abandoned for a rack of improved con- 

No. 44 — Verge, quarter repeater, striking 
on three gongs, repeating motion actuated 
by chain from pendant. This example bears 
the name (falsely) "Breguet a Paris" in 
almost microscopic letters on dial below 
figure 6. With slight variation this model 
is found from a variety of localities in 
France and Switzerland. Breguet com- 
pleted a watch in 1802 which cost 30,000 

No. 45 — Verge, striking hour and half 
hour automatically and also arranged to 
repeat the hour by slight pressure on the 

pendant, striking mechanism being actuated 
by separate mainspring, which has the 
modern safety stop work. Made in France 
or Switzerland, probably about itiuu. 

No. 46 — Verge by "Benjm. Maude, No. 
3800, London." Benjamin Maude was at 53 
St. Martin's-le-Grand from 1770 to 1794. 

No. 47 — Lever, seventeen jewels, com- 
pensation curb, radial cocks, suspended 
barrel, silver dial with applied numerals. 
French or Swiss of about 1830. 

No. 48 — Chronometer, uncut bimetal bal- 
ance, parallel type of bars or bridges, six- 
teen jewels, pivoted detent held to position 
by straight spring pressing on flattened side 
of pivot arbor. Probably of Swiss make 
about 1860. 

No. 49 — Cylinder, full plate, six jewels, 
silver balance, modern regulator, steel 
scape planted visible below balance and 
supported with cock runnmg from edge of 
plate opposite balance cock. Artistic design. 
Probably French or Swiss of about 1850. 

No. 50 — Duplex, steel balance with pois- 
ing screws, eleven jewels, half plate and 
three bridges, modern regulator. French or 
Swiss make of about 1850. 

No. 51 — Musical watch. "Vaucher Freres," 
about 1780. 

No. 52 — Alarm watch movement by 
"Julien LeRoy, a Paris, No. 1020." This is 
of interest as exhibiting a striking escape- 
ment which did away with the repeater train 
previously used to govern the speed, an im- 
provement attributed to LeRoy, who was 
born 1686 and died in 1759. 

No. 53 — French calendar. Small hour 
dial at bottom with quarter seconds 15-30- 
45. Small dial at top with days of month. 
.Abbreviated days of the week (French) on 
large circumference of dia.1. 

No. 54 — Small hour dial. Sweep second 
dial. Virgule escapement. Maker's name 
not on movement. Virgule escapement in- 
vented about 1750 by Andreas Charles 
Caron, later known as Beaumarchais, author 
of "Le Barbier de Seville." Dial has center 
sweep with hour dial below center. 

No. 55 — Verge originally but later con- 
verted to detached lever, general descrip- 
tion similar to No. 3. Plate engraved 
"James McCabe, London, No. 4896." Mc- 
Cabe came from Belfast and v^'as in London 
from 1778 to 1811. His best watches wen 
"James McCabe." second-grade "McCabe" 
and third-grade "Beatson." 



No. 56 — English lever by "R. F. Cowde- 
roy, 27 Charington St., New Road, London, 
No. 3355." Very beautifully made. 

No. 57 — Cylinder by Jeffreys & Flam, No. 
60617, Salisbury Square, London. Escape 
wheel is brass and regulator similar to 
modern practice. 

No. 58— "Thos. G. Cathro. No. 266, 
Quebec." Lever escapement with very wide 
ruby impulse jewel, evidently with the idea 
of unlocking at mid swing of balance. 

No. 59— "Vuillamy. London." Three 
generations of Vuillamy were in Pall Mall ; 
Justin, in partnership with Benj. Gray, 
whose daughter he married; Benjamin, his 

son, and Benjamin Lewis, his grandson, 
born 1780, died 1854: a very eminent maker. 

No. 60 — Quarter hour repeater of thin 
model. Cylinder is made of ruby. Design 
suggests the influence of Breguet and has 
his temperature kirb and parachute. 

No. 61 — Swiss repeater marked falsely 

No. 62 — Constantine a Geneve. Very thin 
model cylinder escapement and graceful 
bridges, struck from a common center out- 
side the movement. Made about 1800. 

No. 63 — Ruby cylinder and going barrel 
by "John R. Arnold, London, No. 3784." 
John Roger Arnold was the son of the 


famous John Arnold and succeeded his 
father. He was in partnership with Edward 
John Dent at 84 Strand, 1830-40, and alone 
in 1842. He was succeeded by Chas. 

No. 64 — Lever escapement by "Arnold- 
Frodsham, No. 7254. 84 Strand, London." 

No. 65— English lever 1 7/16" diameter. 
Top plate engraved "Dent Watchmaker to 
the Queen, No. 33405, 61 Strand and 34 
Royal Exchange, London." Edward John 


Dent, born 1790, died 1853. He was most 
famous, perhaps, for making the clock of 
the Houses of Parliament, designed by 
Denison (Lord Grimthorpe). He carried 
on very valuable experiments on the effect 
of heat on balance springs. He made many 
fine chronometers. 

No. 66— "Patek Phillipe." One of the 
earliest stem-wind models. Invented by 
Adrien Phillipe in 1843. 

No. 67 — "K. W. Samelius, Stock- 
holm." This watch or clockhand, one 
of the earliest of the mystery watches 
was made by Knute Wilhelm Samelius 
born 183 6 at St. Anna, Sweden. This 
piece which shows the seconds, minutes, 
hours, days of the week, days of the 
month, year and leap year, revolves on 
a pin set out from a glass dial and has 
no apparent means of driving. The low- 
er part of the hand as shown in the 
figure contains a cylinder movement 
which changes its centre of gravity so 
nicely that the changing centre of 
gravity of the hand as a whole turns 
the hand to the proper hour and the 
calendar part is actuated by a counter- 
weight in the upper part. This was ex- 
hibited in the Stockholm Exposition of 
18 66 and was disarranged by a man 
by the name of Linderrooth who under- 
took to show its workings to the king, 
who desired to see "what made it go." 
As a result Samelius was given a travel- 
ing scholarship with a nine year's resi- 
dence in England to study horological 
matters and bring the knowledge back 
to Sweden. Mr. Samelius moved to 
Chicago and died in 18 81. 

No. 68 — Verge, Boslev regulator, marked 
"A" and "R"' carved bridge, screw adjusted 
potence and counter potence. Plate en- 
graved "T. Brandt, Kiobenhavn, No. 101." 

No. 69— LeRoy a Paris. Julien, 1686- 
1759. He devised a form of repeating 
mechanism much used in French watches 
and substituted springs for the bell in use 
before. Rope engine turned gold single 

No. 70 — Verge by "Johanes List, Augs- 
burg." Made about 1780. Very graceful 
gold case. 

No. 71 — Cylinder of Lepine type, ]/& inch 
thick, excluding minute arbor. Made prob- 
ably about 1810. 

No. 72 — Single silver case. Verge lever, 
carved bridge, plate also carved, by "Jas. 
Shilling, Boughton." 

No. 73 — Verge, silver single-case, with 
"shutter" over winding hole, broad gilt rim 
around dial studded with five-sided pyra- 
mids, which decoration also encircles 
crystal, upper plate of movement covered 
with florid but coarsely carved and pierced 
scroll, pillars turned and knurled, potence 
and counter potence screw adjusted. This 
example was probably made in Switzerland 
about 1800. 

No. 74 — Verge, single silver case, pillars 
carved pentagonal, bridge carved, potence 
and counter potence screw adjusted, plate 
engraved "Gudin a Paris." There was a 
Jacques Jerome Gudin in Paris 1769. 

No. 75 — ^A silver pair case v^ratch by "Isc. 
Larpent & Jurgensen a Kiobenhavn, 853." 
Joergen Jurgensen, who died in 1811, was 
the first of three generations of a family of 
celebrated Danish watchmakers. Dr. Ernest 
Basserman Jordan, in the preface to a 
watch sale in Munich in 1912, says that 
Joergen Jurgensen, with Larpent, formed in 
1780 at Roeskelde a watch factory where 
over 1,500 good watches were manufac- 
tured. In Kopenhagen was a selling store 
which in 1801 was acquired by his cele- 
brated son Urban. The cases are severely 
plain and very nicely fitted. The dial is 
enamel. The movement resembles English 
work of about 1770. The escapement is a 
verge and the pillars square moulded. 
Later watches bearing these names and 
with cylinder escapement resemble French 
or Swiss design and workmanship. 

No. 76 — Cylinder, quarter repeater and 
alarm, silver open face case. Alarm strik- 



ing on same bell as repeater is driven by 
separate mainspring which has same safety 
stop work as modern watch. Spring dust 
cap engraved "Froidevaux a Berne," made 
probably about 1800. 

No. 77 — Baccuet, London, about 1690. 
Silver dial. Plain inside case. Repousse 
outside case. 

No. 78 — English lever, silver pair case, 
steel balance with brass rim outside of 
steel, compensated for heat and cold, with 
"curb" acting on balance spring pins, plate 


engraved "\Vm. Robinson, Liverpool. 
Patent No. 4510." This example made 
about 1830. 

No. 79 — Night and day watch by "Jno. 
Parker, Lindfield, No. 1912." The upper 

part of the dial has a semj-circular opening 
through which the sun points to each of the 
twelve hours and is succeeded by the moon, 
both outlined in gilt on a blue background 
which revolves underneath the dial, taking 
the place of the hour hand. The minute 
hand revolves as in the usual watch. The 
escapement is a verge and was made accord- 
ing to the hall mark in 1813. 

No. 80 — Silver pair case, verge, by "Tho. 
Arnold, London." Britten states that this 
maker was apprenticed in 1687 to Nat. 
Chamberlaine, junior, and admitted to the 
Clockmakers' Company in 1703. A quaint 
notice in the London Gazette of January 
22-25, 1676-77, probably refers to this in- 
structor of Arnold's. "These are to give 
notice that Nathaniel, Watch- 
maker (who hath lived several years at 
Chelmsford, in Essex), for the beter 
accommodation of his friends and cus- 
tomers, hath, at the request of divers of 
them, taken a Chamber at Mr. John Rust's 
in Angel Court, in Loni&ard St., where 
he doth intend, God willing, to attend the 
last Fortnight in every Term, for the mend- 
ing his own Work, and accommodating all 
persons that shall have occasion for New." 

It may be surmised that this piece was 
made for a presentation piece. The outer 
case is carved with deep bas relief and in 
the center depicts what probably represents 
William IIL at the Battle of the Boyne. 
There remains sufficient of an inscription 
to presume that it was "Gulielmus IIL 
D.G. MAG. B. F. ETH, REX" or ex- 
panded, "Gulielmus III. Dei Gratia Magnae 
Rritanniae, Franciae et Hiberniae Rex." 
Willian the Third ruled alone between 1694 
and 1702. 

Near the pendant is a figure carrying a 
bugle and trampling implements of war. 
On the right and left and below are three 
shields which had coats of arms surmounted 
by crests and below streamers on which were 
mottoes. The arms, crests and mottoes are 
unfortunately too worn to decipher. The 
style of carving is extremely effective and 
stands out very nobly in comparison with 
the repousse work, which a little later was 
very popular. 

The bow is of a graceful design in brass 
and is seen infrequently in watches just 
succeeding the period when the bow was 
simply a ring loose through the pendant. 

The inner case is plain with opening in 
back for winding. The bezel is split at the 
joint to enable the crystal to be inserted. 
The movement is very well made for the 
period — and in good condition. The pillars 
are of the lily type, well executed, and the 
teeth of the wheels very accurately filed. 
The potence post is riveted into the top 
plate and the spring set up is the tangent 
screw form. The arbor of the main wheel 
is solid with it and journals at the top in 
the winding square, which is solid with the 
fusee, a very substantial arrangement. The 
dial is enamel and is probably one of the 
earliest, though it may have been especially 
made at a later date. The dial feet fit 
perfectly the original holes in the brass 

No. 81 — -Verge, quarter repeater, striking 
on bell, open face, calendar circle, gold case, 
perforated with small holes to allow sound 
to escape; spring dust cap, movement ex- 
quisitely made, third and fourth wheels, re- 
peating train and balance staff, end capped 
with steel cocks inset with brass bearing 
spots ; repeater arranged with "dumb piece" 
so that vibration can be felt in silence. 
Scroll on bridge has worked into the design 
"L. D. B. & Fils," but movement and dial 
engraved "Nottnagel Montmollin & Comp.," 
possibly the sellers. Made about 1800. 
Examples of Du Bois et Fils are in the 
Guildhall, Wallace and Fleisher Collec- 

No. 82 — Cylinder, cap engraved "Lepine, 
cylinder escapement, No. 15904, six holes 
jeweled." Made about 1820. 

No. 83 — Verge watch engraved "Dorwes, 
London." half-quarter repeater cased with 
plain silver outer case, beautifully chased 
repousse middle case, "Diana and the 
Chase," and pierced engraved inner case. 
;\Iade about 1760, perhaps in Amsterdam 
for the English trade. 

No. 84 — A large watch by Gille Martinot 
having but one hand, metal dial with enamel 
plaques for the hours, and the case covered 
with tortoise shell. Gille Martinot was one 
of a family who held a long succession as 
French Court horologists. Gilbert, i.")72 
Denis, 1611; Zacherie and Balthazar, 1637 
Gille, 1661 ; Jean, 1686; Louis Henry, 1688 
Henri, 1670; Jerome, 1695; Jacques, 1718 
Tean, 1727; Claude, 1729. Gille was the 
brother of Jean and father of Henri. The 
court horologist had lodging at the Louvre 





in apartments reserved for distinguished 
artists, dined in the castle at the table of 
the Gentlemen of the Chamber, had the 
right of entry to the King's presence along 
with the distinguished members of his 
household and the one on duty assisted in 
preparing the King for the day by selecting 
and winding up his watch. The salary re- 
ceived was 395 livres quarterly. 

No. 85 — Verge, half-quarter repeater 
striking on bell, outer silver case covered 
with a lacquer resembling tortoise shell, 
inner case beautifully chased and pierced 
for the emission of sound, potence and 
counter potence not screw adjusted, plate 
engraved "LeRoy a Paris, No. 356." This 
is probably the celebrated Julien LeRoy, 
1686-1756, who invented the gong which 
superseded the bell for repeaters. Examples 
of "LeRoy" are found in Moore, Dennison, 
Munich, Proctor and Wheeler collections, 
and examples marked Jullienne or Jin 
LeRoy are in Wheeler, Garnier, Hearn, 
Boston Fine Arts, Dennison, Wallace and 
Morgan collections. 

No. 86 — ^Lever escapement with two main- 
springs to run eight days, by "James Mur- 
dock, London." 

No. 87 — Verge, quarter repeater, open 
face, silver case, dial removed to show re- 
peating mechanism. No name on move- 
ment, but made probably in Switzerland 
about 1800. 

No. 88 — Combination, duplex, lever and 
chronometer by an unknown maker. The 
escape wheel resembles the Chinese Duplex; 
the impulse is given direct to the balance, 
and the locking and unlocking is taken care 
of by anchor and fork. The final escape 
takes place once a second. Mr. James 
Arthur has an example like this with 
"Rodin et Cie'' engraved on the case cap. 

No. 89 — Peculiar escapement. Movement 
engraved _ "Patent Union Chronometer, 
2636." This is a combination of a lever and 
chronometer made by Charles Grant Kelvey 
and William Holland of Rock Ferry, 
Birkenhead, under a patent granted them in 
1859, being a "simplification" of one granted 
previously to George Morton. 

No. 90 — Dead beat verge, silver single 
case, silver balance, Bosley regulator, going 
barrel, ruby end stone, screw adjusted 
potence and counter potence, movement en- 
graved "Olivier Quartier, Locle en Suisse, 
Fecit." The escapement is a variation by 
Paul Garnier on those of Debaufre and 
Sully. Example made about 1850. 

No. 91 — Verge, silver pair case, outer 
case chased repousse a jour, pillars carved 
rectangular, outside ratchet on fusee, 
bridge and scroll pierced and carved, plate 
engraved "Tarts, London (No.) 10673." 
Britten gives the period of 1755-90 for 
watches engraved Tarts. 

No. 92 — Verge, probably Swiss, about 
1840, bridge carved with deep cut and good 
floral scroll. Handsome Arabic dial and 
gold hands. Case of low carat-gold, very 
red, stamped 1169 and PP. Pendant thin 
and wide after English model. 

No. 93 — Verge, silver pair case, solid 
bezel, locking bar nib projects through 
enamel dial, finely carved steel hands, 
pillars carved rectangular, bridge and scroll 
pierced and carved, outside ratchet on fusee 
wheel, worm gear set-up, potence screwed 
to plate, plate engraved "Martineau, Lon- 
don." This example was made probablj 
about 1760. There was a Joseph Martineau 
1850-70, and another one, 1790-94. 


No. 9A — Verge watch by "Samson Leekey, 
London, 9139." This has silver pair cases, 
the outer one being repousse. The hall 
mark gives date of 1805. The balance guard 
has two feet, unusual in English work, the 
set-up is ratchet and pawl under the dial. 
The locking nib extends from under the 
dial and the spring and screws are 
ornamented, a curious assemblage of dif- 
ferent periods. 

No. 95 — Filled case, very beautiful 
example. Inner case engraved "L'Epine. 
Detached lever, 13 jewels. No. 69444." 

No. 96 — Plain quarter hour repeater with 
verge movement ; silver case stamped F. M. 
C. in lozenge and the numbers 38976 and 
2696. The style of case (excepting bow 
and pendant), dial and hands are after 
Breguet. The movement resembles early 
19th Century Swiss work. The dial is a 
beautiful example of die work in invitation 
of engine turning. The numerals are wax 

No. 97^Decimal dial movement. This is 
a Swiss or French verge, without signature, 
but probably made about 1820. After the 
French Revolution there were many at- 
tempts to introduce the decimal system into 
time reckoning. The dial is divided on the 


right into five parts, each subdivided by ten 
divisions, the left side divided into twelve 
parts. The hour hand extends in both 
directions so that the time can be read 
decimally or duodecimally. The minute 
hand (missing in the photograph) revolves 
once an hour and apparently is to be dis- 
regarded in reading decimally, though the 
calculation can be made if desired. 



No. 98 — Karrusel by B. Bonniksen, Lon- 
don, No. 57062. The entire escapement, 
balance escape wheel and lever are planted 
in a karrusel or cage which revolves once 
in 52.5 minutes to overcome or average 
position errors. The watch is cased in gold 
and corresponds in diameter to a 16 size 
American movement, but is somewhat 
thicker. The general scheme is the same as 
that of Breguets Tourbillon of 1801. 

B. Bonniksen was of Danish birth, and 
was at one time instructor in the British 
Horological Institute. His watches were 
made in Coventry. A watch by Brockbank, 
Atkins & Moore, made under Bonniksen'o 
patent, is in the Nelthropp collection in the 
Guildhall Library, London. This watch was 
described in detail in January, 1919, issue 
of the American Jeweler. 

No. 99 — Rack lever, silver case, second 
hand rotates four times per minute, being 
planted on scape wheel, which has 30 
teeth, there being no fourth wheel. Plate 
is engraved "M. I. Tobias & Co., Liverpool, 
3453. Patent." This example was made 

No. 100 — Verge movement and quarter 
hour repeater by "W. Tomlinson, London, 
2239." This is a beautiful piece of 
mechanism. The repeating part is very 
like Graham's work, has a rack and 
stationary star wheel with a teeter-like "all 
cir nothing piece" probably that attributed 
to Matthew Stogden. 

William Tomlinson was admitted to the 
Clockmakers' Company in 1699 and was 
Master in 1733. 

No. 101 — Silver-cased verge. Shows one 
of the forefathers of the stem wind. The 
bow is tipped back and the top part of the 
pendant is pulled out several times, the 
chain being wound around a shive wheel 
which contains a light spiral spring within 
it (somevt'hat after the fashion of a pocket 
spring tape measure) which draws it back. 
As it is pulled out the ratchet winds up the 
fusee. This was made by "Andrew Craw- 
shaw, Rotherham, No. 12262," who was in 
business 1810-42. 

No. 102 — Case winding silver watch. The 
cut shows the mechanism of a winding 
effected by the closing of the case. A rack 
is attached by appropriate linkage to a bell 
crank pivoted on the pin of the case joint. 
The setting is accomplished through tl^e 

pendant. The dial and two bridges are re- 
moved in tlie photograph. This example is 
a lever movement, very beautifully made, 
engraved "Robert Theurer & Fils, Chaux- 
de-Fonds, Brevets, S. G. D. G., Ancre 370." 
Made about 1860. 

No. 103 — Pedometer watch engraved 
"Loehr Patent, No. 479." The cut shows 
the movement of a watch which is wound 
by the movement of the body. A counter- 
weight is pivoted at the end of a lever 
which, as it moves up and down, works a 
pawl against a ratchet wheel geared to the 
winding post. This device was used by 
Louis Recordon, London, in 1780; A. L. 
Breguet, Paris, in 1783, and by many others 
since. The winding is quite practicable, but 
the bumping of the counterweight is not 
conducive to the finest performance of the 

No. 104 — Virgule escapement by "Jaqs 
Oltramare a Bordeaux." This watch has a 
sweep, jim:p second hand and independent 
train. Two-hour circles record, one the 
regular time and the other only when the 
sweep second runs. The virgule, so-called 
from the resemblance to the punctuation 
mark called a comma in English, is usually 
attributed to Caron. 

No. 105 — Verge, silver pair case, calendar 
dial, carved pillars, inside fusee wheel 
ratchet, screw adjusted potence and counter 
potence, silver cock, Bosley regulator, steei 
ornaments, silver spring cap with 
"transom," dial engraved "Fisher & Sons, 
London." There was a Daniel Fisher & 
Son, 1790-1804, but this example was prob- 
ably made in Switzerland about 1800, judg- 
ing from the workmanship and design. 

No. 106 — Verge movement engraved 
"Chevalier a Lonfleur. No. 109." 

No. 107 — Mysterious movement. "Brevet 
22 V. I. 88." Silver case. Glass both sides. 
Glass dial. Train invisible is arranged near 

No. 108— "Auburndale, Mass. No. 1650." 
Horse timer with peculiar escapement. 

No. 109— Ja. Duncan. 1725. Chancery 
Lane, London. Silver pair case. 

No. 110 — Jno. Clayton, London. Silver 
pair case. 

No. Ill — Ruby cylinder, engraved 
"Breguet et Fils, No. 1766." This is of in- 
terest as showing a boldness of design 
worthy of the great maker, Abraham 
Breguet. The second, third and fourth 






wheels are carried by a skeleton rectangular 
bridge, the barrel hung from the heavy 
pillar plate, the balance bridge open and 
light, and the lifting spring absolutely 
straight and plain, all giving the im- 
pression of simplicity and directness. 
The movement has been recased in sil- 
ver with gold bezels in conformity with 

Breguet's design. It is of interest that tne 
watch, without compensation and after hav- 
ing run about a hundred years, keeps 
time within two minutes a month. The dial 
does not have "Breguet" scratched under 
the figure 12, and there are some points of 
design and workmanship which raise doubts 
as to its authorship. 

No. 112 — Cylinder escapement, gold bal- 
ance, thin model of about 1830. Gold case, 
open faced, stamped "J C" crown, and 
2320; back engine turned. Edges pendant 
and ring very beautifully carved. Silver 
dial with Roman figures applied in same 
metal and ornamentation applied in quatre 

No. 113 — Verge, silver pair case, outer 
case chased repousse, bezel split at joint, 
locking bar projecting through dial; thick 
movement with elaborate pierced carving on 
pillars, cock, foot and scroll ; worm gear 
set-up; fusee with outside ratchet, potence 
riveted to plate. Plate engraved "Ferd. 
Zoning, Fr'furt, (No.) 461." This example 
was probably made soon after 1700. 

No. 114 — Le Pine a Paris. 

No. 115 — Verge, quarter repeater, similar 
to No. 87. but smaller and with rounded 
and hollow ball sliding over hollow pendant. 
Made by "Ld. Bordier, No. 4106," about 

No. 116 — Sapphire cylinder quarter hour 
repeater by "Barrauds, Cornhill, London 
6591." This is an elegant example of the 
period. The escape wheel is of brass, as h 
also the balance. The design is simple anc 
devoid of ornamentation. The repeating 
mechanism is after the French type with 
chain, but is finished in the English type in 
the grey. The dial is fastened by tapered 
screws from the brass ring passing through 
holes in the dial feet. This was probably 
Paul Philip Barraud, 1796-1813. 

No. 117 — Verge, white metal pair case, 
dial marked "Samson, London." Made 
about 1800. 

No. 118 — Verge, silver pair single case, 
skeleton upper plate, pentagonal carved 
pillars, inside ratchet fusee wheel, Bosley 
regulator, steel ornaments, screw adjusted 
potence and counter potence, spring dust 
cap. There is no name on the movement 
or dial, but the design is a copy of one of 
Lepine's earlier models, and is suggestive 
of the evolution of bars or bridges to re- 
place the full plate. 

No. 119 — Verge, quarter repeater, open 
face, with exposed repeating work and 
figure of Father Time and consort striking 
with hammers imitation bells when the 
hours and quarters are being actually 
sounded on gongs. No name on movement. 
Probably made in France or Switzerland 
about 1800. 

No. 120 — Verge, silver pair case, split 
bezel, brass ring around silver dial, which 
has sunk center with carved ornament and 
engraved "Nicod, London," opening through 
central part of dial shows day of the month ; 
locking bar nib projects through dial; 
pillars carved rectangular ; cock, foot and 
scroll pierced and carved ; set-up ratchet 
between barrel and under plate; top plate 
engraved "Nicod, London." This example 
may have been made as late as 1750. 

No. 121- — Gold enamel watch by "Mori- 
cand & DeGranges, a Geneve, No. 61030." 
This has a small verge movement in a very 
thin case enameled front and back with 
most exquisite coloring in the champleve 
style displaying a butterfly. Made about 
1800 and reputed formerly the property of 
the wife of Nicolai Michelli, a general of 
Garibaldi's army. 

No. 122 — A skeleton verge watch by 
"L'Epine, ITger du Roy," gold case studded 
with small diamonds around the front and 
back bezels (many missing) ; hands and 
dial set with diamonds. Jean Antome 
L'Epine was born 1720 and became court 
horologist to Louis XV. This watch, with 
its skeleton top plate, suggests the evolution 
of L'Epine's bridging which he is said to 
have brought out about 1770. He died in 
1814, the business being continued by his 
grand nephew. This example was probably 
made between 1750 and 1760, and quite 
likely for some lady of the court. 

No. 123 — Cylinder by Thomas Mudge. 
This example is in most perfect condition, 
apparently as it left the hands of its famous 
maker in 1755. The dial is of enamel with 
an opening to show the alarm dial which is 
set by key through dial. The hands are 
exquisitely carved from steel and blued. 
The cases of silver are carved a jour, as 
seen in illustration. The inner case is hall 
marked with date letter "u." lion, head with 
crown and casemaker's initials TC. Both 
inner and outer case have seven leaf joint*. 
The joint or hinge to the movement is at- 
tached to the "brass edge" carrying the 

Scale in mm- 


I 2345S789IO 





dial. The movement is beautifully made. 
The escape wheel is of brass. A peculiar 
banking scheme used by Mudge is a pin 
put through the cylinder and projecting 
to bank against a pin standing out from the 

Thomas Aludge, born in 1715, was 
apprenticed to and succeeded Graham in 
1751. About 1755 he entered into partner- 
ship with William Button, another appren- 
tice of Graham. JMudge invented the lever 
escapement about 1765. Britten says that 
it appears that he constructed but two 
movements on this principle : one for Queen 
Charlotte, and the other for his patron, 
Count Bruhl, which performed remarkably 
well. In 1793 he received the remainder 
of 3,000 pounds as result of report of com- 
mittee appointed by House of Commons 
on performance of chronometers sent in 
1774 and 1779 in competition for the prize 
by the Board of Longitude, and a like 
amount was awarded Arnold and Earn- 
shaw. He died in 1794. 

No. 124 — Silver pair cased verge by "J. 
Wilders, London, 14307," hall mark of 1780. 
This watch belonged to a Dutch sea cap- 
tain and has his original fob and seals, 
keys and amulet inscribed "Das disch das 
wassar nicht ersaufife," which has been 
freely translated "May the waters not en- 
gulf you."' The dial is of silver and has a 
very pretty overlay design in the center. 

No. 125 — Verge, single case, painted dial 
with two small circles, one for hours and 
minutes and the other for days of the 
month, the large circle with seconds and a 
center sweep hand. Maker unknown, 
probably Swiss make about 1820. 

No. 126 — Verge watch with worm and 
gear set-up, silver case, enamel dial, en- 
graved "Chas. Cabrier, London, 3468." 
This was probably the third of this name, 
the first admitted to the C. C. Company in 
1697, the second in 1726 and the third in 

No. 127 — Pocket chronometer by "Jno. R. 
Arnold, London, Invt et Fecit No. 1791." 
It has the involute escape wheel tooth and 
inner discharge, compensated balance, and 
barrel spring, all as invented by the father, 
John Arnold, who with Earnshaw is given 
credit for the design of the modern 
chronometer. It has been recased with the 
dome of glass to display the movement. 
Made about 1800. 

No. 128 — Tourbillon with chronometer 
escapement by "Girard Perregaux, La 
Chaux-de-Fonds." This is a beautiful speci- 
men of Breguet's many inventions. It was 
formerly the property of Harvey D. Colvin. 
mayor of Chicago, 1873-6, and was in the 

early eighties converted to a stem wind by 
some artist of great skill. The entire 
escapement revolves once a minute, to aver- 
age the position errors. A detailed descrip- 
tion appeared in the August, 1916, issue of 
The American Jeweler. 

No. 129— "James Nardin, Lock." Pocket 
chronometer recased in silver. The pocket 
chronometers of James Nardin figured fre- 
quently in the prize pieces of observatory 

No. 130— Watch chronometer by "B. 
Lawley, London, 6034." This is an ex- 
quisitely made stem wind fusee movement, 
% nickel plate and fitted with a balance 
spring composed of a flat spiral and cylinder 
with overcoil terminal, a form attributed by 
Saunier to Hammersley, probably the Jno. 
Hammersley of Clerkenwell, born 1819, died 

No. 131 — Pocket chronometer cased in 
gold, engraved "Louis Eisenhard, Geneva, 
1190." This watch was originally the prop- 
erty of Mr. Matson, the founder and pre- 
decessor of the present Spaulding & Co., 
Chicago and Paris. It was made key 
wind and later converted to stem wind by 
some very expert workman. The detent is 
of the bascule type and the balance spring 
is curious as being in two planes, the 
upper spiral having four turns and the 
lower spiral nine turns. 

No. 132— "Chas. Frodsham, No. 05947, 84 
Strand." A beautifully made lever move- 
ment with flat spiral balance spring, gold 
case engine turned. Charles Frodsham, 
born 1810 was son of William James, 
grandson of William (whose wife was 
granddaughter of John Harrison) and great 
grandson of William, born 1728, all eminent 
watchmakers. In 1842 Charles Frodsham 
succeeded John R. Arnold at 84 Strand. 

No. 133— "Arnold-Chas. Frodsham, 84 
Strand, London, No. 8629." Spring detent, 
pocket chronometer, made about 1845. 

No. 134 — "Chas. E. Jacot, Chaux-de- 
Fonds. Isochronal. Vibrations quarter 
seconds. Lever escapement. 28 ruby jewels. 
Compensated balance." Beautifully made. 
1858 on dial. 

No. 135 — Key wind lever movement by 
"M. Grossman, Glashutte, No. 1790." Dres- 
den, Saxony, 1826-85. Morris Grossman 
was the most celebrated German horologist, 
who lived for the most part in Saxony, 
1826-85, though he spent a considerable time 




in England and wrote his prize essay on 
the lever escapement in English. 

No. 136 — Verge, Swiss made. Inner 
silver case only, stamped MFLIFD and 
AUGSBURG. Wind in back. The pendant 
is cylindrical with ball also cylindrical. 
Very wide pendant bow equal to half 
diameter of case. The Roman figures are 
very heavy, the "four" being ^" by ^4". 

No. 137 — Bascule detent chronometer by 
"Jules Jurgensen Kiobenhavn, No. 7168." 
This is a thin and small diameter, 19 ligne, 
and very well made, exhibiting the calibre 
favored by this famous maker. Jules 
Jurgensen was born at Locle 1808 and died 

No. 138— "James Nardin. Locle, No. 
9S07." Lever escapement, very well made. 

No. 139— "Automatic Watch Co. Pat. 
1885." Silver gilt case. Lever escapement. 
The hours and minutes show through open- 
ings in the dial, each number jumping at 
the completion of the previous minute or 

No. 140 — English lever, silver pair case, 
steel balance 30-tooth scape wheel, no 
fourth wheel, second hand planted on scape 
wheel. Plate engraved "Jos'h Johnson, 
Liverpool, 1502." Made about 1820. 

No. 141 — A watch engraved "Edw. Dor- 
mer London 6363," skeleton plate, verge 
escapement, and may have been designed 
from one of Lepine's. The back of the case, 
which is of brass gilt, has a crystal to dis- 
play the movement and the winding is from 
the dial after the French style. 

No. 142 — English lever, silver case, dial 
has "wind up" circle compensated balance, 
15 jewels, movement engraved "Tho's. Rus- 
sell & Son, London & Liverpool, No. 61121." 
Cap engraved "By Appointment Makers to 
the Queen and H. R. H. Prince Alfred." 
This example made about 1830. 

No. 143 — Pocket chronometer by Girard 
Perregaux. This is fitted with a spherical 
balance spring, attributed to Jacques Fred- 
eric Houriet (1743-1830), Locle, a brother- 
in-law of Urban Jurgensen. On the center 
coil of the balance spring is pinned a finger 
which when the swing of the balance is 
too great interposes between a pin on the 
balance arm and two pins on the bridge, 
making a stop, this preventing over bank- 
ing or tripping. 

No. 144 — Chinese Duplex, silver hunting 
case, dial marked "William Dixon, Lon- 
don," probably made at Fleurier, Switzer- 
land, about 1850. 

No. 145— "Arnold-Chas. Frodsham, 84 
Strand. London, No. 8426." Lever escape- 

No. 146 — "Jules Jurgensen. Copenhagen. 
No. 9408." Key wind, lever escapement. 

No. 147— "Dent, Chronometer Maker, 
London, No. 54870." This was originally a 
chronometer but converted to a lever es- 

No. 148 — Silver cased verge watch by 
"Parkinson and Frodsham, 4 Change Alley, 
No. 1745." Wm. Parkinson and William 
James Frodsham F. R. S., entered partner- 
ship in 1801, which continued till 1842 at 
No. 4 Change Alley. 

No. 149 — Quarter hour repeater by 
"Jacque De Bon a Paris No. 7762." Gold 
case engine turned with crest and coat of 
arms. Edges of case enameled with deli- 
cate floral design; the movement has cylin- 
der escapement, sweep seconds hand and 
repeater striking on gong attached to case 
instead of the usual arrangement of attach- 
ment to the movement. On the edge of the 
"brass edge" of the movement is engraved 
"En 1783 fait pour M. Maurice De Brabeck, 
M. A." The balance cock has worked in 
the scroll De Bon. De Bon was "clock 
maker to the Duke of Orleans." 

No. 150 — A verge movement by "Will'm 
Anthony, London, 2185." This movement 
carries the back cap, case lock spring and 
lift spring and is very thin at the edge, sug- 
gestive of a case having a sharp edge and 
only one joint. William Anthony was at 
55 Red Lion St., St. Johns Sq., Clerken- 
well. He was born about 1764 and died in 
1844, and was reputed to have been one 
of the most expert watchmakers of his day. 
A handsome watch by him was sold from 
the Dunn Gardner Collection in 1902 for 
200 pounds. 

No. 151 — Verge with silver pair cases by 
Thomas Tompion. The outer case is 56 
millimeters in diameter, the pillar plate is 
41.5, 10.6 between plates and 26 from top 
of minute arbor to top of winding post. 
The joints are seven leaf and the movement 
hinge attached to "brass edge." The cases 
are not hall marked. The inner case is 
stamped 4289 and H. G., the casemaker's 
initials, and on the pendant knob C over 2. 
The winding hole appears to have originally 
had a "shutter" over it. The outer case 
was doubtless added later, having the case- 


maker's initials W. G. The dial had been 
replaced with an enamel one which has 
been removed and a replica by electro de- 
posit from a Tompion in the Wheeler Col- 
lection put in its place. The locking bar 
had a pin projecting through dial, later 
removed to accommodate enamel dial. The 
movement is well made and the wheels 
probably were spaced with the circular file 
dividing engine contrived by Hooke about 
1670. The regulator is the form devised 
by Tompion. the balance is lirass and fitted 


with a two coil spiral spring, covered by 
a handsome cock with wide base which 
Britten thinks he adopted after 1688. The 
potence post has a wide foot with a 
square post projecting through and riveted 
in the top plate. Tompion was probably 
the first to adopt this substantial construc- 
tion, the former style having only a small 
ledge around the post through the top 
olate. Later two rivets were used instead 
of the one square and still later a screw 
and steady pins. The top plate is engraved 
with 4289 and the same number is stamped 
nn pillar plate. Tompion was the first to 
number his movements, beginning it is 
thought by Britten about 1685. It is doubt- 
ful whether the numbers represented the 
actual number turned out. In advertise- 
ments for lost movements are found num- 
bers 277 in 1682. 422, 458 and 0201 in 1691 
and 3428 in 1704. It is not improbable 
that this movement with only two coils in 
balance spring was made previous to 1700. 

Thomas Tompion, "the father of English 
watch making," was born in 1638 and died 
1713, being buried in Westminster Abbey. 
He was the leading watchmaker at the 
Court of Charles II, and everywhere wel- 
comed as an artist of commanding ability. 
Throughout his career he was associated 
with some of the leading mathematicians 
and philosophers of his time. By adopting 
the inventions of Dr. Hooke and the Rev. 
Edward Barlow (Booth) he brought Eng- 
lisli watch making to a place where it led 
the world, both in workmanship and de- 

No. 152 — Three- Wheeled Chronometer 
Lever by Don J. Mozart. This watch was 
one of a few made by the Ann Arbor 
Watch Co. in 1868, and is inscribed on the 
top plate "Made expressly for Clarke Corn- 
well, stock holder of the Mozart Watch 
Co. at a cost of $2,500 under Don J. Mozart, 
Patent, Dec. 24, 1868, Mozart Watch Co., 
Ann Arbor, Mich., No. 7," and on the dust 
cap "Chronometer Escapement by Don J. 
Mozart, full jeweled, made for Clarke 
Cornwell, who is a chip of the Old Block, 
A. D. 1869." 

The U. S. Patent No. 72528 improvement 
in Watches Dec. 24, 1867, gives residence 
of New York and is the one referred to as 
of 1868 on watch. The escapement has 
direct impulse in one direction and lever 
impulse in the other. The case is a gold 
filled G. W. Ladd and beautifully preserved. 

Don J. Mozart was born in Italy in 1820 
and died in Ann Arbor in 1877. He helped 
start the New York Watch Co. in Provi- 
dence in 1864 which later moved to Spring- 
field, Mass., and later to Canton, Ohio, 
as the Hampden Watch Co. 

This watch was described in detail in 
Feb. 5, 1919, issue of The Jewelers' Cir- 

No. 153 — Ruby cylinder by "Breguet et 
Fils" on dial and "Breguet 2089" on inner 
cap and movement. Plain gold case 
stamped R 2089, 923, diamond shield en- 
closing G M and part of a crescent, cherub's 
head with figure 2, two stamps nearly ob- 
literated in polishing, one appears to have 
been a head and the other a circle open on 
one side and the letter B in one side of 
enclosure. The inner cap is of metal 
gilded. The dial is fastened with one screw 
underneath the figure 12 and between 
screw and figure 's Breguet's "tradema-k" 

scratched by an automatic machine in the 
enamel in almost microscopic letters in 
script Breguet and the number of the 
movement. The balance is of brass and 
the balance spring has an 8 coils flat spiral. 
The regulator carries a heat compensator 
which moves one of the balance spring 
pins. The top pivot jewel is carried by 
a "parachute" to absorb any shock which 
might otherwise break the pivot. The 
lower pivot is carried by a steel potence 
projecting into the cylinder which is of 
ruby and hangs down below pivot. The 
third, fourth and escape wheels are below 
pillar plate making possible the symmetri- 
cal disposition of the barrel, center wheel 
and balance. The workmanship is beautiful 
and the proportions of the entire watch are 
very elegant. Made about 1810. 

Abraham Louis Breg:uet was born at 
Neuchatel, Switzerland, in 1747, his parents 
being of French origin. He settled in Paris 
in early manhood where he died in 1823, 
being succeeded by his son Louis Antoine, 
who retired in 1833 and was followed by 
his son Louis. The house is still in exist- 
ence. Among his many inventions is the 
overcoil spring which is employed in ail 
good watches of the present day. 

No. 154 — Center sweep second beating 
seconds, by Joseph Jeunet, Meadville, Pa.. 
under U. S. Patent No. 21425, 1858. Mr. 
Jeunet came to America in 1854 and settled 
near what is now known as Frenchtown, 
near Meadville, Pa., to become a farmer, 
but devoted his leisure hours to the trade 
he had learned from his uncles who were 
watchmakers at Foncine le Bas in the De- 
partment of the Jura of France. 

The idea he had in mind and which is 
set forth in his patent was to lessen the 
effect of sudden jars and jolts by having the 
usual balance wheel made with teeth engag- 
ing a pinion on a further balance which 
rotates several times in one direction and 
then in the other, the first balance carrying 
the balance spring. Several watches were 
made for Mr. Jeunet at Morey in the Jura 
but did not achieve the desired superiority 
among railroad men to whom they were 
sold at Meadville by a Mr. Jenks. 

No. 15.5 — Crank roller lever by "Ed- 
wd. Massey, No. 109." Edward Massey 
was born in 1770 and died in 18 5 2. 
The example shown in half-tone was 
made about 1814. The modern de- 

No. 102 — CASE WIND BY 


No. lo; 



B i C D E F , C. 




tached lever, which unquestionably ori- 
ginated as shown in figure 155 A, by 
Thomas Mudge has been thought er- 
roneously by many to have developed 
from the rack lever by cutting off all 
the teeth of the rack but two and all 
the teeth of the pinion but one. Mas- 
sey's escapement, developed after Mud- 
ge, shown in line cut, would suggest 
this. Massey devised several schemes 
of winding by pumping action. 

No. 15 6 — Double escape-wheel de- 
tent escapement "C. Fasoldt, Albany, 
N. Y., No. 385, Pat. February 1, 1851 — 
April 3, 1864 — March 7, 1865." The 
movement has a very peculiar escape- 
ment shown in line drawing. The regu- 
lator is peculiar in that the curb pins 
describe some curve, not a circle, as 
when moved by the adjusting screw, not 
unlike what is known as the whip lash 
type. There are fourteen jewels and 
the workmanship is very good. C. Fa- 
soldt was born in Thuringen near Leip- 
sic, Germairy, and came to America af- 
ter the rebellion of '48. He was at 
Rome, N. Y. and later at Albany, where 
he started a watch factory about 18 61, 
employing some 50 men, according to 
a statement of his son. He made also 
many tower clocks with gravity escape- 
ment, and micrometric gratings. He 
died in 189 8. 

No. 157 — "Geo. P. Reed, Boston — Im- 
proved Pat. April 1868 No. 19." The 
example shown in half tone has escape- 
ment patented April 18 68 shown in 
line drawing. It is essentially a pivoted 
detent chronometer with a continuous 
spring performing functions of gold 
spring and locking spring. This chrono- 
meter was the only one made on a 
manufacturing basis in this country, so 
far as known to the writer. Mr. Reed 
was born at Grafton, N. H. 18 27. He 
served an apprenticeship to a watch 
maker in Concord, N. H. and in 18 5 6 
went to work for Dennison, Howard & 
Davis and about 18 5 8 went with E. Ho- 
ward who had returned to Roxbury. He 
remained with Mr. Howard till about 
1868 when he opened a small factory 
in Maiden where he made his pocket 
chronometer. He later moved to Mel- 
rose, where he died in 1908. He was 
quite prolific in patents — his most wide- 
ly used patent No. 61867, granted in 
1867, was the "whiplash" regulator. 
The maintaining spring barrel was pat- 
ented in 1857 and used on all the early 
E. Howard watches. 

No. 158 — Lever escapement by "J. D. 
Custer, Norristown, Pa., U. S. A. Pat. 

No. 105 — VERGE B Y 




Feby. 4tli, 143." The patent is of rec- 
ord as No. 2,93 9. The movement is 
about a 14 size and has a gold dial 
which looks like English work of the 
period. The plates are quite thick and 
very nicely fire gilded. The winding 
and setting arbors are for a square key. 
The fusee has its top made in such a 
way that as the chain wraps into the 
end of the groo%'e the top is pressed up- 
wards and engages a pin in the top plate, 
thus making a safety stop. The escape- 
ment is a lever of rather crude work- 
manship. The balance and impulse pin 
are all jewelled, five in all, the pallets 
not being jeweled. Jacob D. Custer, 
born about 18 09, the son of a millwright 
at Worcester, Montgomery Co., Pa., 
went to Norristown, Pa., about 18 31 and 
commenced making high case clocks. 
Between 1840 and 18 4.5 he made per- 
haps a dozen watches, movements and 
cases. He made also tower clocks for 
the Norristown Court-House and Mer- 
chants Eating House on Market Street, 
Philadelphia, and several hundred light 
propelling clocks for the U. S. Coast 
Survey. He was also the inventor of a 
bullet machine and was the builder of 
a steam boat. There was in use as late 
as 18 8 5 a steam engine at the Stony 

Creek Saw Mill, which he made. He 
died in 1879. 

No. 159 — "Dennison Howard & Davis, 
Waltham No. 1276" made about 1855. 
Key wind, full plate, 15 jewels, ratchet 
tooth escape wheel, solid balance. See 
cut 158-25. 

No. 160 — "Samuel Curtis, Roxbury, 
No. 515." This was one of the earliest 
watches made by what is now the Amer- 
ican Watch Company. The first hun- 
dred were engraved Warren Manufac- 
turing Company and the next six or 
seven hundred bore the name, Samuel 
Curtis. The Arm was first known as 
"The American Horologe Company" for 
about a year, then for another year "The 
Warren Manufacturing Company" and 
then the "Boston Watch Company." 
The first watches were put on the mar- 
ket in 1853. The factory was moved 
from Roxbury to Waltham in 1854, 
after which the movements were en- 
graved "Dennison Howard & Davis." 
In 18 5 7, the firm was known as "Tracy 
Baker & Co.," and within a year "Ap- 
pleton Tracy Co." In the year 1859, 
the name was changed to the "American 
Watch Company" and, in 1885, to the 
"American Waltham Watch Co." The 
example shown in cut 159-4 6 is full 
plate, 18 size, has solid balance, 15 
jewels and English t3'-pe ratchet toothed 
escape wheel. 

No. 161 — "Crescent Garden, American 
Watch Company, Waltham, Mass. No. 
813634" made about 1877. The move- 
ment shown in cut 15 9-2 7 has a patent 
pinion, 11 jewels and is 14 size. 

No. 162 — "A. W. Co., Waltham 
Woerd's patent. Patented Oct. 3, 1876, 
Sept. 28, 1880, Pat. pin., Pat. in Eng- 
land Aug. 6, 1880, No. 1809155." Made 
about 1881. The movement shown in 
cut 158-2 8 is stem wind, lever set, fly 
back chronograph and has 17 jewels. 

No. 163 — "Appleton Tracy & Co., 
Waltham, Mass." "Improved sporting 
watch, James Appleton, Jr., Waltham 
N. 13779." This watch made about 
1858 is shown in cut 159-45, is key 
wind, has 15 jewels. The sweep hand 
rotates once in four seconds and the 
small hand jumps quarter seconds. There 
is a stop push pin which stops the whole 

No. 164 — "American Watch Co., Wal- 
tham, Mass., No. 50041." This was 
made by the Nashua Watch Co., Nash- 
ua, N. H., which was sold in 18 62 to 
the American Watch Co. The move- 
ments which had not been put on the 
market were finished at Waltham. The 

Nashua project had on its staff a num- 
ber of names well known to American 
Watch making, Stratton, Woerd, Blake, 
Moseley, Gerry, Moorehouse and Bing- 
ham. The movement shown in 158-2 6 
is three-quarter plate, 20 size, has 17 
jew*els, club foot escape wheel, safety 
stop and is a very handsome piece of 
work and design. 

No. 165 — "Appleton Tracy & Co., 
Waltham, Mass." "American Watch 
Co. No. 32195." This was made about 

1860, 18 size, has 15 jewels and is 
shown in cut 159-47. 

No. 16 6 — "Martyn Square, American 
Watch Co., Waltham, Mass. Pat. Pin. 
No. 1784390." This model was made 
about 1882, full plate, 18 size, expan- 
sion balance with timing screws, 11 
jewels and dust band. See cut 159-48. 

No. 167 — "P. S. Bartlett, Waltham, 
Mass. No. 26444." "American Watch 
Co., Waltham, Mass." Full plate, 18 
size, solid balance, 7 jewels, made about 
1863. See cut 158-25. 

No. 168"-Appleton Tracy & Co., Wal- 
tham, Mass. No. 5236." Made about 
1857. Full plate, 18 size, gold balance 
and 15 jewels. See cut 158-25. 

No. 169 — "Home Watch Co., Boston, 
Mass. No. 649374." Made about 1872, 
model of about 1866. Full plate, 7 
jewel, steel balance, keywind. Resem- 
bles cut 158-25. 

No. 170 — "American Watch Co., Wal- 
tham, Mass. Adjusted Pat. Pinion, No. 
626454." Made about 1872, 18 size, 
15 jewels, compensated balance with 
timing screws, key wind. Resembles 
cut 159-48. 

No. 171 — "Broadway, A. W. Co., Wal- 
tham, Mass., No. 1064576." Made about 
1878. Nickel balance, 7 jewels, key 
wind. Resembles cut 158-25. 

No. 172 — "Bond St., A. W. Co., Wal- 
tham, Mass., Safety Pinion No. 2937- 
191." 14 size, three-quarter plate, 
stem wind, compensated balance, 7 
jewels. Made about 18 8 6. Resembles 
cut 159-47. 

No. 173 — "Wm. Ellery, Boston, Mass., 
No. 47394." "A. W. Co." Made about 

1861. Three-quarter plate key wind, 
steel balance, 15 jewels, very long lever. 
Resembles cut 15 9-47. 

No. 174 — "Wm. Ellery, Boston, Mass. 
No. 69420." Full plate, 18 size, 15 
jewels. Made about 1874. Resembles 
cut 159-46. 

No. 175 — "Am. Watch Co., Waltham, 
Mass., Foggs Safety Pinion 18665, Wo- 
erds Pat. 1867, No. 410228." Three- 
quarter plate, 16 size, kej' wind, corn- 



pensated balance, 15 jewels. Made 
about 1869. 

No. 176 — "Appleton Tracy & Co., 
Waltham, Mass., No. 250519." "Amer- 
ican Watch Co." 16 size, three quarter 
plate, compensated balance. 15 jewels, 
key wind. Made about 18 66. 

No. 177 — "Adams St., Amer'n. Watch 
Co., AValtham, Mass., No. 563785." 


"American Watch Co." Three-quarter 
plate, 12 size, Itey wind, compensated 
balance, 15 jewels. Made about 1876. 

No. 178 — "Appleton Tracy & Co., 
Waltham, Mass. No. 75282." "Amer- 
ican Watch Co." Three-quarter plate, 
16 size, key wind; compensated bal- 
ance, 15 jewels. Made about 1862. 

No. 179 — "Appleton Tracy & Co., 
Waltham, Mass., Foggs Patent 1865, 
No. 250081." "American Watch Co." 
Three-quarter plate, 2 size, key wind, 
compensated balance, 15 jewels. Re- 
sembles 158-26. 

No. 18 — "Crescent Garden, Amer'n. 
Watch Co., Waltham, Mass., Patent 
Pinion, No. 1061174." "American 
Watch Co." Three-quarter plate, 14 
size, key wind, nickel balance, 7 jewels. 

Made about 1878. Resembles cut 159- 

No. 181 — "Hillside, Am. Watch Co., 
Waltham, Mass., Pat. Pinion, Woerds 
Patents, No. 1764049." "American 
Watch Co." Made about 1882. Three- 
quarter plate, stem wind, compensated 
balance with timing screws, 13 jewels, 14 
size. Resembles cut 159-47. 

No. 182 — "Appleton Tracy & Co., 
Waltham, Mass. No. 45380." "Amer- 
ican Watch C." 10 size, three-quarter 
plate, compensated balance, 15 jewels, 
key wind. Barrel turns when winding, 
carrying the outer end of main spring, 
the inner end of which drives annular 
arbor and main wheel which is separate 
from barrel. Resembles cut 159-47. 

No. 18 3 — "P. S. Bartlett, Waltham, 
Mass., Pat. 1858, No. 120241." "Amer- 
ican Watch Co." 10 size and like pre- 
ceeding but with gold balance. Made 
about 1878. 

No. 184 — "Appleton Tracy & Co., 
Waltham, Mass., Foggs Safety Pinion 
1865, No. 485893." "American Watch 
Co." 10 size, three-quarter plate, key 
wind, compensation balance, 15 jewels. 
Made about 1869. Resembles cut 159- 

No. 18 5 — "Wm. Ellery, Waltham, 
Mass., Pat. Pinion, No. 936335." 
"American Watch Co." 10 size, three- 
quarter plate, key wind, 7 jewels, nick- 
el balance. Made about 1877. Re- 
sembles cut 158-27. 

No. 18 6 — "Lady Washington, Wal- 
tham, Mass., Pat. Pinion, No. 13555- 
21." "A. W. Co., Waltham, Mass." 10 
size, three-quarter plate, key wind, 7 
jewels, nickel balance. Made about 
1880. Resembles cut 159-47. 

No. 187 — "Royal, Amer. Watch Co., 
Safety Pinion, No. 4309855." "Amer- 
ican Waltham W. Co." 18 size, three- 
quarter plate, stem wind, compensation 
balance, 15 jewels, heart cam regulator. 
Made about 1889. 

No. 188 — "Riverside, Amer'n. Watch 
Co. No. 870733." "Amer'n Watch 
Co." 10 size, three-quarter plate, key 
wind, 15 jewels, compensation balance. 
Made about 1877. 

No. 189 — "Seaside, Waltham, Mass. 
No. 2716869." "A. W. Co., Waltham." 
10 size, three-quarter plate, stem wind, 
7 jewel, uncut balance. Made about 

No. 190 — "Wm. Ellery, Waltham, 
Mass., No. 980104." "Am. W. Co." 
10 size, three-quarter plate, key wind, 
compensation balance, 13 jewels. Made 
about 1877. 


No. 191 — "H. Z. Culver, Elgin, 111. 
Pat. No. 1800." Full plate, 18 size, 
key "Wind, 15 jewels, compensation bal- 
ance. Made 18 67. See cut 158-23. 
The Natn'l. Watch Co. of Chicago, Illi- 
nois was incorporated in 18 64. In 
1874, the name of the Company was 
changed to "The Elgin National Watch 

No. 192 — "T. M. Avery, Elgin, No. 
415726." "Elgin Natn'l Watch Co." 
Full plate, 18 size, nickel balance, 7 
jewels, key wind. Made in 1876. See 
cut 158-24. 

No. 193 — "Francis Ruble. National 
Watch Co., Elgin. Patent Pinion. Mose- 
ley's Patent No. 50832." 10 size, three- 
quarter plate, compensated balance, 15 

jewels, key wind. Made in 18 78. See 
cut 158-22. 

No. 194 — "Dexter St., National Watch 
Co., Elgin, Patent Pinion, No. 201110." 
Three-quarter plate, 10 size, key wind, 
7 jewels, compensated balance. Made 
in 1872. See cut 158-21. 

No. 195 — "Lady Elgin, Elgin, 111., 
Patent, Moseley Patent. No. 7 6705." 
Three-quarter plate, 10 size, 15 jewels, 
compensated balance. Made in 1871. 

No. 19 6 — "Gail Borden, Elgin, Pa- 
tent Pinion, Patent, 186012." Key 
wind, 10 size, three-quarter plate, 15 
jewels, compensated balance. Made 
about 1872. Resembles cut 158-21. 

No. 197 — "Atlas Watch Co., Chi- 
cago." No number. Made by Water- 







,IP 1 






bury Watch Co., about 189 6. Three- 
quarter plate, size, stem wind, 7 
jewels, compensated balance. 

No. 198 — "Atlas Watch Co., Chicago, 
7281720." Full plate, stem wind, 7 
jewels, 16 size. Made by Elgin Watch 
Co., about 1896. 

No. 199 — "B. W. Raymond, Elgin, 
111., Adjusted, Pat. Pinion, 182786." 

"National Watch Co." Full plate, 18 
size, key wind, compensated balance, 
15 jewels. Made 1874. Resembles 
cut 158-23. 

No. 200 — "G. M. Wheeler, Elgin, 111., 
Pat. Pinion, 6132." "National Watch 
Co." Full plate, 18 size, 15 jewels, 
key wind, compensated balance. jMade 
1873. Resembles cut 158-23. 

No. 201 — "H. H. Taylor, Elgin, 111., 
Adjusted. Pat. Pinion, 37307." "El- 
gin Natn'l. Watch Co." Full plate, 18 
size, 15 jewels, key wind, compensated 
balance. Made 18 68. Resembles cut 

No. 202 — "H. Z. Culver, Elgin, 111., 
Patent, 2651." "National Watch Co." 
Full plate, 18 size, 15 jewels, key wind, 
compensated balance. Made 1867. Re- 
sembles cut 158-23. 

No. 203 — "Mat. Laflin, Elgin, 111., 
9264." "National Watch Co." Full 
plate, 18 size, key wind, 7 jewels, com- 
pensated balance. Made 18 68. Re- 
sembles cut 15 8-23. 

No. 204 — "M. D. Ogden, Elgin, Pat. 
Pinion, 314868." "Elgin National 
Watch Co." Full plate, 18 size, key 
wind, compensated balance, 11 jewels. 
Made 1876. Resembles cut 15 8-23. 

No. 205 — "J. T. Ryerson, Elgin, 111., 
Patent, 57881." "National Watch Co." 
Full plate, 18 size, key wind, nickel 
balance, 7 jewels. Made 1870. Re- 
sembles cut 158-24. 

No. 206 — "Chas. Fargo, Elgin, 1456- 
17." "National Watch Co." Full plate, 
key wind, 18 size, compensated balance, 
7 jewels. Made 18 72. Resembles cut 

No. 207 — "Inter-Ocean, Elgin Nation- 
al Watch Co., 498141." "Elgin Nation- 
al Watch Co." Full plate, 18 size, key 
wind, nickel balance. Made 1877. Re- 
sembles cut 158-24. 

No. 208 — "Leader, Elgin National 
Watch Co., 489479." "Elgin National 
Watch Co." Full plate, 18 size, key 
wind, nickel balance, 7 jewels. Made 
1877. Resembles cut 158-24. 

No. 209 — "Elgin National Watch Co., 
Safety Pinion, 2046031." "Elgin Na- 
tional Watch Co." Three-quarter plate, 
18 size, 7 jewels, compensated balance, 
stem wind, interchaneable wind for 
hunting or open face. Made 18 82. 

No. 210 — "E. Howard & Co., Boston, 
Reeds Patent, Nov. 24, 1857. No. 375. 
Top plate made in two pieces, see cut 
159-37, gold balance, left hand key 
wind. The size is 4 5 m.m. a trifle larger 
than 18 size, (44.86 m.m.) The escape 
wheel is made with club teeth and the 

' ' 1 ! I I 1 t 1 1 i 1 / 




pallet stones are set vertical from the 
pallet fork which swings in a plane be- 
low the escape wheel. The main spring 
is chambered in the pillar plate and the 
outer end attached to it. The spring 


drives from the inner end on a collet 
acting through a maintaining device in 
the main wheel to deliver power to the 
train while the watch is being wound. 
This was the patent of George P. Reed, 
17055 granted April 14, 1857, though 
the engraving on the watch gives it as 
November 2 4, 18 57. The device pre- 
vented injury to the train in event of 
the main spring breaking and 
necessitating a left hand wind like 
the English watches which were largely 
used in this country at the time of its 
adoption. Edward Howard was born in 
Hingham, Mass., October 6, 1813. About 
1842, he, with D. P. Davis, began a part- 
nership for the manufacture of clocks 
of high grade. In 1849 they, with 
Aaron L. Dennison and Samuel Curtis, 
started the American Horloge Co. whose 
successor, the Boston Watch Co., be- 
came insolvent in 1857 and was sold to 
Royal E. Robbins. Mr. Howard return- 
ed to Roxbury in the clock business and 
soon began building the watch here de- 
scribed which may have been turned 
out in 1858 but probably a little later. 
No. 211 — "E. Howard & Co., Boston, 
Reeds Patent Nov. 24, 1857, No. 29- 
20." The plates differ somewhat from 
the preceeding, see cut 159-38. The 
balance is compensated and the escape 
wheel has less lifting face than on the 
preceeding. The escape wheel and lever 
are in the same plain, and the pallets 
are set as in Swiss practice. The 
regulator is very long, and of the vari- 
ous designs used in the Howard, the 
simplest and best. The balance is com- 
pensated and the screws without slots, 
but with drilled holes for friction driv- 
er, providing a very convenient place for 
removing weight without defacing the 
screw. Key wind and 15 jewels. Made 
about 1860. 


No. 212 — "E. Howard & Co., Boston, 
9075. Mershon's Patent April 36, 18.59, 
Reeds Patent 1857." Three-quarter 
plate, 15 jewels, compensated balance, 
key wind. Escapement and balance 
similar to preceding. The Mershon 
regulator has a rack segment on the 
regulator proper in which engages a 
pin on the short arm of the index point- 
er which is journaled at the center of 
the watch, an early attempt to get a 
wide movement of index pointer for a 
small movement of curb pins. See cut 
159-39. Made about 1862. 

No. 213 — "E. Howard & Co., Boston, 
41666 N, Heat & Cold." Three-quarter 
plate, 15 jewels, stem wind, steel motor 
barrel, compensated balance with slot- 
ted screws, whip lash regulator of 
Reed's patent. Made about 1875. Size 
45.4 m.m. nearly 19 size, (45.72 m.m.) 
See cut 159-40. 

No. 214 — "John L. King, Springfield, 
Mass., 5939." "New York Watch Co." 
Three-quarter plate, 18 size, key wind, 
15 jewels, compensated balance, made 
about 1870. Resembles cut 158-6. The 



New York Watch Company was the out- 
growth of the Mozart Watch Company 
organized in 18 64 in Providence, R. I. 
In 1866 under the new name the com- 
pany moved to Springfield, Mass., under 
the superintendency of L. W. Cushing 
of Waltham who was succeeded by 
James H. Gerry who had been with the 
U. S. Watch Co., the Waltham Co., and 
the Nashua Co. 

No. 215 — "John Hancock, Springfield, 
Mass., 14747." "New York Watch Co." 
Full plate, 18 size, key wind, 7 jewel. 

steel balance. Resembles cut 15 8-8. 
Made about 1871. 

No. 216 — "Chas. E. Hay ward. Patent 
Pinion, 54768." Full plate, key wind, 
15 jewels, compensated balance, 18 size. 
Resembles cut 15 8-8. 

No. 217 — "H. G. Norton, Springfield, 
Mass., No. 6958." "New York Watch 
Co." Three-quarter plate, key wind, 17 
jewels, compensated balance, 16 size. 
See cut 158-6. Made about 1870. 

No. 218 — "Chester Woolworth, 203- 
29, Springfield, Mass." "New York 

Watch Co." Full plate, 18 size, 15 
jewels, compensated balance. Made 
about 1871. Resembles cut 158-8. 

No. 219 — "Tremont Watch Co., Bos- 
ton, No. 6862." "Tremont Watch Co." 
Full plate, 18 size, 15 jewels, compen- 
sated balance. Made about 1865. See 
cut 159-52. Aaron L. Dennison born 
at Freeport, Me., 18 62, was apprenticed 
to a watch-maker in Brunswick in 18 30. 
After several years at his trade in Bos- 
ton and New York, he interested Ho- 
ward and Davis and Samuel Curtis, capi- 
talist, in his dream of manufacturing 
watches on the interchangeable system 
and after a tour of inspection in Europe, 
began with his partners the making of 
watches in 1851, which were placed on 
the market in 18 53. The company made 
an assignment in 1857 after which Den- 
nison remained as Superintendent till 
December, 1862. In 1864 he interested 
A. O. Bigelow in starting the Tremont 
Watch Co. Mr. Dennison went to Zu- 
rich to make the trains and escape- 
ments to be fitted in Boston to the 
plates, barrels, and minor parts made 
there. The first movements were put 
on the market in the summer of 18 65. 
The next year the company decided to 
build a factory at Melrose and make 
the watch complete. The new move- 
ment was called the Melrose. In 18 68 
the company ran short of money and 
discontinued. Mr. Dennison, who had 
withdrawn in 18 66, sold for the stock- 
holders, the Switzerland plant to the 
English Watch Co. in 1870. 

No. 2 20 — "Melrose Watch Co., Bos- 
ton, No. 31381." Resembles 219 except 
that balance spring is pinned to projec- 
tion of the cock. 

No. 221 — "U. S. Watch Co., Waltham, 
Mass., 46176." "U. S. Watch Co., Wal- 
tham." Full plate, stem wind, 18 size, 
7 jewels, compensated balance. Made 
about 1888. See cut 159-29. 

No. 222 — "U. S. Watch Co., Waltham, 
Mass., Chas. V. Woerds Patent, 8455." 
"U. S. Watch Co., Waltham." Three- 
quarter plate, 16 size, stem wind, 7 
jewels, compensated balance. The bar- 
rel is very wide making it necessary to 
raise center part of top plate to ac- 
comodate this center wheel. Made about 
1887. See cut 159-31. The United 
States Watch Co. of Waltham was in- 
corporated in 18 84. 

No. 223 — "Currier, Springfield, 111., 
Currier Patent, No. 425." "Springfield 
Watch Co." Full plate, 18 size, key 
wind, 15 jewels, compensated balance. 
Made 1872. See cut 158-20. The Illi- 


nois Springfield Watch Company was or- 
ganized in 18 69. In 1879 the name 
was changed to the Springfield Illinois 
Watch Co. The first four superinten- 
dents, J. K. Bigelow, D. G. Currier, Otis 
Hoyt, and C. E. Mason were of those 
who had come west on five-year con- 
tracts with the Elgin Company when it 
was started. 


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No. 224 — "Mason, Springfield, 111., 
No. 8030, Patent Pinion." "Illinois 
Springfield Watch Co." Full plate, 18 
size, 7 jewels, compensated balance, key 
wind. Made about 1872. Resembles 
cut 158-20. 

No. 225 — "Interior, Springfield, 111., 
No. 76450." Full plate, 18 size, 7 

jewels, nickel balance. Resembles cut 
158-20. Made about 1880. 

No. 226 — "Springfield, 111. No. 149- 
148, W. & C." "W. & C." Full plate, 
18 size, compensated balance, key wind, 
15 jewels. Made about 1880. Resem- 
bles cut 158-20. 

No. 227 — "Columbia, Springfield, 111., 
No. 165455." Resembes the preceeding, 
has dust cap. Made about 188 0. 

No. 22 8 — "Columbia Watch Co., No. 
133875, Springfield, 111." Full plate, 18 
size, key and stem wind. Resembles 
cut 158-20. Made abut 1880. 

No. 229 — "Bunn, Springfield, 111., 
Chalmers, Pat. 12-19-82, Pat. Pinion, 
Adjusted '309190.' Illinois Watch Co." 
Full plate, 18 size, 15 jewels, compen- 
sated balance, stem and key wind, pa- 
tent regulator. Made about 1882. 

No. 230 — "Illinois Watch Co., Spring- 
field, 111., 551187, Patent Pinion." 
Three-quarter plate with bridge for es- 
cape wheel, 8 size, 7 jewels, compen- 
sated balance. Made about 1884. See 
cut 159-44. 

No. 231 — "Illinois Watch Co., Spring- 
field, Safety Pinion, 1162143." "Illi- 
nois." Three-quarters plate in two 
parts, six size, stem wind, 7 jewels. 

No. 232 — "Fayette Stratton, Marion, 
N. J., Giles Patent, March 13th, 66, 
2736." United States Watch Co. Full 
plate, 18 size, key wind, compensated 
balance, 15 jewels. Made 1868. See 
cut 158-5. The United States Watch 
Co. was organized in 18 64 and the first 
watches were put on the market in 
18 67. James H. Gerry was Superin- 
tendent, having brought a number of 
foremen from the American Watch Co., 
at Waltham. In 1872 the Company 
made an assignment. For about two 
years the factory was run under the 
name of the Marion Watch Co. Some 
of the machinery went to the Fredonia 
Watch Co., some to the Auburndale 
Watch Co. and some to the Fitchburg 
Watch Co. 

No. 233 — "G. A. Read, Marion, N. J., 
Pat. March 13th, '66, No. 127098." 
"United States Watch Co." Full plate, 
18 size, key wind, imitation compensat- 
ed balance. The Giles patent was a 
double crescent opening in the top plate 
to disclose the escapement action. Made 
about 1870. Resembles cut 158-5. 

No. 234 — "G. A. Read, Marion, N. J., 
Pat. Mch. 8, '70. No. 72074." "United 
States Watch Co." Three-quarter 
plate, 18 size, key wind, imitation com- 
pensated balance, 7 jewels. Made about 
1870. See cut 158-4. 

No. 235 — "United States Watch Co., 
Marion, N. J., 76517, Pat. Mch. 8, '70." 
Similar to preceeding cut with 15 jewels 
and compensated balance. The regu- 
lator is a compound affair devised to 
give a very small motion to curb pins 
for movement of secondary index. Re- 
sembles cut 158-4. 

No. 236 — "Asa Fuller, Marion, N. J. 
No. 64069. Extra jewelled U. S. W. Co. 
(in monogram). Three-quarter plate, 
12 size, key wind, 15 jewels, compen- 
sated balance and regulator like 2 3 6. 

No. 237 — "Chas. G. Knapp, Marion, 
N. J. 60147." Barrel arbor carried by 
bridge and third fourth and escape ar- 
bors bj' another, size 9, 15 jewels, key 
wind, compensated balance. The work- 
manship looks like Swiss. 

No. 238 — "Chas. G. Knapp, Marion, 
N. J., 60574." Similar in general de- 
sign to 23 8 but stem wind with wolf 
teeth winding wheels. 

No. 239 — "Independent Watch Co., 
Fredonia, N. J., Safety Pinion 208938." 
Full plate, 18 size, key wind, 15 jewels, 
compensated balance. Made about 
1880. The Independent Watch Co. of 
Fredonia was organized in 18 8 by E. 
D. and C. M. Howard. These brothers 
had sold large numbers of watches on 
the installment plant. These watches 
were engraved Independent Watch Co. 
manufactured for them by several Amer- 
ican Companies. They decided to make 
their own watches with machinery 
bought from assignees of defunct com- 
panies — some of it came from the "Cor- 
nell" factory and some from the Marion 
factory. Chas. S. Moseley was engaged 
as superintendent, who had been suc- 
cessively with the Waltham, Nashua and 
Elgin companies. In 1885 the plant 
was sold to the Peoria Watch Co. 

No. 240 — "Independent, Fredonia, N. 
Y. Improved No. 233712, Improved 
April 10, 1879, Sept. 15, 1880, Patent 
Pinion." Howard Bros., Fredonia, N. 
Y. Full plate, 18 size, 15 jewels, com- 
pensated balance. The curb pins of 
the regular project through a slot in the 
balance bridge. The plates and train 
resemble those of New York Watch Co. 
of Springfield, Mass. 

No. 241 — "Peoria Watch Co., 15 
jewels, Anti-Magnetic Spg. Peoria, 111., 
Safety Pinion, adjusted, 11276." "Peor- 
ia, 111." Full plate, 18 size. The regu- 
lator lever engages a pin on a worm 
and screw element. See cut 138-9. The 
Peoria Watch Co. was incorporated in 
1885 and the Fredonia plant brought 
to Peoria. 


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No. 242 — "Edward Biven, Newark, N. 
J., Patent, 8535." "Newark Watch Co." 
Full plate, 18 size, compensated balance, 
15 jewels. N. B. Sherwood in 1873 in- 
terested capital in New York for a 
watch factory which developed in 18 64 
to the Newark Watch Company. In 
1870 the plant was sold to The Cor- 
nell Company at Grand Crossing, 111. 

No. 243 — "E. S. Williams, Chicago, 
111., No. 16052." "Cornell Watch Co." 



Pull plate, 18 size, compensated bal- 
ance, 7 jewels, key wind converted 
with Abbot device to stem wind. See 
cut 158-12. Paul Cornell with J. C. 
Adams organized the company in 18 70 
in Chicago with factory at Grand Cross- 

No. 244 — "C. L. Kidder, San Fran- 
cisco, 14937." "Cornell Watch Co." In 

1874 Paul Cornell with W. C. Ralston 
of San Francisco bought the Grand Cross- 
ing plant and moved the machinery to 
San Francisco, where is was intended 
to utilize Chinese labor. The company 
was called the Cornell Watch Co., of 
San Francisco. Movement resembles 

No. 245 — "California Watch Co., San 
Francisco, No. 25105." Similar to 244 
but stem wind. In 1876 the California 
Watch Co. succeeded The Cornell 
Watch Co. of San Francisco, and built 
a factory at Berkeley. The plant was 
closed in 187 6 and the machinery was 
sold to the Independent Watch Co. of 
Fredonia and the Rockford Watch Co. 

No. 246 — "Rockford Watch Co., 
Rockford, 111., No. 5616, 15 jewels." 
Full plate, key wind, 18 size, 15 jewels, 
compensated balance. See cut 15 9-41. 
The Rockford Watch Co. was organized 
in 1874. The first watches were put 
on the market in 18 7 6. The employees 
came largely from the Cornell Watch 
Co.'s factory at Grand Crossing. 

No. 247 — "Rockford Watch Co., 
Rockford, 111., 79288." "Rockford 
Watch Co., Illinois." Similar to 24 6 
but with whip lash regulator. 

No. 248 — "R. W. Co., Rockford. 111., 
Patent Pinion, No. 213622." "Rock- 
ford". Three-quarter plate, 6 size, stem 
wind, 15 jewels, compensated balance. 

No. 249 — "Auburndale Rotary, Mass. 
Pats. 1875-6-7, No. 177." A very in- 
genious attempt to make a rotating 
movement for a cheap watch. The en- 
tire train rotates differing from the 
tourbillon in which only the escape- 
ment and balance wheel rotate to equal- 
ize position errors. It was invented or 
designed by J. R. Hopkins and made 
by the Auburndale Watch Co. which 
was started in 18 7 7. The pin escape- 
ment was faulty and the watch was not 
a success, was made to sell at $10.00 
in nickel case. It is 18 size, stem wind, 
solid balance. See cut 158-2. 

No. 250 — "Auburndale Timer, Pat. 
applied for, 129." This was another 
design of Mr. Hopkins made to indicate 
quarter seconds, 18 size, key wind. The 
escapement was designed h}^ J. H. Gerry. 
See cut 1.58-1. 

No. 251 — "Lincoln, Auburndale, 
858." This is an 18 size, key wind, 
three-quarter plate movement, 7 jewel, 
imitation expansion balance. Was de- 
signed by Chauncey Hartwell who had 
been many years in the Waltham fac- 
tory. See cut 15 8-3. 


No. 252 — "Aurora Watch Co., Au- 
rora, 111., Safety Pinion, No. 125380." 
"Aurora" Full plate, 18 size, 15 jewels, 
compensated balance. Made 1887. See 
cut 258-16. The Aurora Watch Co. 
was incorporated in 1883. The first 
three superintendents were Geo. F. 
Johnson, J. W. Hurd and Robert Mc- 

No. 253 — "Columbus Watch Co., Gru- 
ens Pat. Pinion, 892." "Ohio, Colum- 
bus Watch Co." Three-quarter plate, 
15 jewels, Breguet spring, compensated 
balance, 15 size, stem wind. Made 
about 1883. Resembles cut 158-14. 
The Columbus Watch Co. was organ- 
ized in 1882 succeeding the firm of 
Gruen and Savage who imported par- 
tially made Swiss movements and fin- 
ished them in Columbus. 

No. 254 — "Columbus Watch Co., Gru- 
ens Pat. Pinion, No. 7067." Three-quar- 
ter plate, 15 jewels, compensated bal- 
ance, stem wind, Breguet balance spring. 
See cut 158-14. 

No. 255 — "Columbus Watch Co., Col- 
umbus, Ohio, Safety Pinion, 165024." 

Three-quarter plate, 15 size, 15 jewels, 
flat balance spring, compensated bal- 
ance, stem wind. The winding bridge 
is separate from the top plate. Made 
about 1886 — See cut 158-13. 

No. 256 — "Columbus W. Mfg. Co., 
Columbus, O., Gruens Pat. Pinion, 125- 
22." "C. W. Co. C. O." (in mono- 
gram). Three-quarter plate, 7 size, 15 
jewels, compensated balance, flat bal- 
ance spring. Resembles cut 158-14. 

No. 257 — "Columbus Watch Co., 
Columbus, Ohio, Safety Pinion, 1250- 
64." "Columbus Watch Co., Columbus, 
Ohio. Full plate, 18 size, stem wind, 
compensated balance, flat balance 
spring, whip lash regulator, 15 jewels. 

No. 258 — "Chesire Watch Co., Pat- 
ented, 87715." "C. W. C. O." (in mono- 
gram). Three-quarter plate with bal- 
ance bridge on top plate, imitation ex- 
pansion balance, 7 jewels, 21 size, pen- 
dant made part of movement to fit in 
one joint case. See cut 159-54. The 
Chesire Watch Co. was incorporated in 
1883 at Chesire, Conn. The model was 
designed by D. A. Buck who designed 


the Waterbury. The barrel turns on 
winding and is separate from main 
wheel which is driven from inner end 
of main spring. 

No. 259 — "Appleton Watch Co., Ap- 
pleton, Wis., 93237." "The Appleton 
Watch Co." Three-quarter plate, 17 
size, 7 jewels. The train is the same 
as that in 25 8 and without doubt made 
with the same machinery. The plates 
are different and compressed to make a 
smaller watch. See cut 159-53. 

No. 2 60 — "Brooklyn Watch Co., No. 
303608." "B. W. Co." 18 size, full 
plate, 15 jewels, compensated balance, 
stem wind. It has the appearance of 
the cheap Swiss imitations American 
movements. The writer was. however, 
informed by the late Edward Sweet that 
there was at one time a watch factory 
in Brooklyn. 

No. 261 — "Manhattan Watch Co. 
Patented United States & Great Britain, 
105857." A cheap watch with four 
jewels, stamped plates, IS size, nickel 

case probably made by same factory, 
paper dial, stem wind. See cut 159-35. 
Manhattan Watch Co. was organized in 

No. 262 — "New York Chronograph 
Watch Co., Patent, 171320." "M. W. 
Co." A cheaply made, 18 size watch, 
with a centre sweep which can be dis- 
engaged by a push piece throwing the 
engaging wheels out of the same plane. 
Several of the parts are duplicates of 
the preceeding watch by the Manhattan 
Watch Co. There is a patent of record 
No. 330905 December 9, '85, by Ed- 
mund Kuhn, Brooklyn, N. Y., assigned 
to the Manhattan Watch Co. for a sweep 
second device. See cut 159-33. 

No. 2 63 — "New York Chronograph 
Watch Co., New York, Safety pinion, 
174593." "N. Y. Chronograph Watch 
Co." Three-quarter plate, split balance, 
sweep second, 16 size, 7 jewels in addi- 
tion to three top plate jewels at third, 
four and scape wheel. Without doubt 
made by same factory as preceeding 


two, but much better made and slightly 

No. 264 — "New Era, Lancaster, Pa., 
79011."' "Lancaster, Pa." Three-quar- 
ter plate, 18 size, 7 jewels, key wind. 
See cut 158-11. The Adams & Perry 
Watch Mfg. C. was incorporated at Lan- 
caster, Pa., in 18 74, re-organized in 
1878 as Lancaster, Pa. Watch Co., Ltd., 
and again in 1879, Lancaster Watch 
Co. In 188 6 it was bought by the Key- 
stone Standard Watch Co. About 1892 
it was re-organized with the Aurora 
Watch Co. as the Hamilton Watch Co. 

No. 265 — "West End, Lancaster, Pa., 
48429." "Lancaster, Pa." Similar to 
preceeding but with 15 jewels. 

No. 266 — "Keystone Watch Co., Pat. 
Dust Proof, Patent Pinion, Pat. S. W., 
Pat. Reg. 333487." "Keystone Watch 
Co." Three-quarter plate, 18 size, 15 
jewels, stem wind, cut balance. There 
is a mica transom put over the balance 
wheel. The regulator is a screw ad- 
justed device with independent adjust- 
ment of greater movement than the 
screw would compass. An advertise- 
ment in the Jewelers' Weekly of Febru- 
ary, 1887, has the modest claim that 
"Our No. 15 Movement is the cheapest 
American Lever Stem-Wind made. It 
is fully equal for accurate time, dur- 

ability, & C, to watches costing ten to 
twenty per cent more." 

No. 2 67 — "Keystone Watch Co., 
Safety Pinion, 272942." "K. W. Co." 
Three-quarter plate, 6 size, cut balance, 
15 jewels, stem wind. 

No. 268 — "Keystone Watch Co. 213- 
369." "K. W. Co." Three-quarter 
plate, 7 jewels, stem wind. Similar to 
cut 158-11. 

No. 269 — "Seth Thomas, Thomaston, 
Conn., Adjusted Safety Pinion, 93994." 
"Seth Thomas." Plate carrying centre 
third, fourth and scape with separate 
bridge for barrel, compensated balance, 
15 jewels, stem wind, 18 size. The 
Seth Thomas Co. began making watches 
in 18 8 3 putting them first on the mark- 
et in 1885. 

No. 270 — "Waterbury Watch, Pat- 
ented in the United States, Great Bri- 
tain, Canada, France, Germany, Austr- 
ia, Russia, Spain, Sweden, Denmark, 
Belgium, Benedict & Burnhani Mfg. 
Co., Manufacturers, Waterbury, Conn. 
U. S. A. This watch was designed by 
D. A. Buck to be retailed complete with 
case for three and one half dollars. This 
was a very remarkable product with 
duplex escapement revolving train, 
eight foot main spring, no jewels. The 
factory in 1887 had a capacity of fifteen 
hundred watches per day with an aver- 


age of five watches per employee. In 
189 8 the name was changed to the New 
England Watch Co. In 1914 the plant 
was bought by Robt. IngersoU & Bro. 
of New York. 

No. 271 — "Kelley Watch Company, 
Chicago, Patented." This watch made 
about 1893 is an interesting exhibit of 
punch press work carrying out the gen- 
eral lines of traditional watch design. 
The size is about 16, stem wind and stem 
set, paper dial. 

No. 272 — "Hayward, Pat. Pinion, 
Springfield, Mass., 133482." "Hamp- 
den Watch Co." Similar to 216. The 
Hampden Watch Company was organiz- 
ed 1877 succeeding the New York 
Watch Co. H. J. Cain was superin- 
tendent for a number of years. In 
188 8 the factory was moved to Canton, 

No. 273 — "P. H. Wheeler, Otay 
Watch Co., Otay, California. No. 30- 
500, Safety Pinion." Full plate, 18 
size, 15 jewels, whiplash regulator. This 
example was in the original factory 
shipping box in a jeweler's safe in San 
Francisco at the time of the great fire. 
The Otay Watch Co. at Otay, California 

was started in the late eighties and 
went out of business about 1890, the 
machinery being moved to Osaki, Japan. 
The superintendent and promoter of 
the Otay enterprise was P. H. Wheeler 
from Elgin, 111. 

No. 274 — "W. Palmer & Co., Rox- 
bury, Mass., No. 68906." W. Palmer 
& Co., Roxbury, Mass. Full plate, 18 
size, 15 jewels, diamond cap jewel, 
three arm, bimetal balance uncut. The 
plates and train resemble the early 
Boston Watch Company's. The dial is, 
however, fastened with locking screw 
and the case screw is under dial. Made 
about 1854. 

No. 275 — "Palmer Watch Co., Wal- 
tham, Mass. Palmer Patent stem wind, 
1033." Three-quarter plate, 18 size, 
stem wind, 15 jewels. It is said that 
these watches were made by a man who 
conducted a watchmaker's school in 
Waltham about 1875. The plates and 
train have strong resemblance to those 
made by the American Watch Co. See 
cut 158-17. 

No. 27 6 — "Trenton Watch Co., Pat- 
ented, 58970." Three-quarter plate 
with double support balance bridge, 18 

size, uncut balance, four jewels, stem 
wind. See cut 158-18. The New Haven 
Watch Company was started in 18 83 
in New Haven, Conn., but in 18 85 mov- 
ed to Chambersburg near Trenton, N. 
J., and the name changed to The Tren- 
ton Watch Co. S. T. Byam was made 
superintendent. In 1908 the business 
and factory was bought by Robert H. 
Ingersoll & Brother. 

No. 277 — "Trenton Watch Co., U. S. 
A., Safety Pinion, 859455." "Trenton 
Watch Co." Three-quarter plate in two 
pieces, 12 size, cut balance, stem wind, 
7 jewels. Made about 1886. See cut 

No. 278 — "990839." "Trenton Watch 
Co., U. S. A." Three-quarter plate, 
stem wind, 7 jewels, uncut balance. 
Made about 18 8 6. 

No. 279 — "New York Standard Watch 
Co., 27020." Full plate cut away for 
balance, 4 jewels, uncut balance. The 
escapement was patented by Robert J. 
Clay, Jr., of Jersey City in 188 6, No. 
35 6189. The fourth wheel engages a 
worm which carries the escape wheel 
with pointed teeth which is set per- 
pindicular to the anchor or lever. See 
figure 15956. The New York Standard 
Watch Co. turned out its first product 
in 1887. 

No. 28 — "New York Standard Watch 
Co., 34843." Similar in all respects to 
foregoing but with substitution of con- 
ventional lever escapement. The wind- 
ing in these watches has an internally 
toothed circle which by slight deflection 
transmits motion from winding pinion 
to main spring or setting train. 

No. 281 — "New York Standard Watch 
Co., 1395227." New York Standard 
Watch Co., U. S. A." Three-quarter 
plate, 18 size, 7 jewels, stem wind, un- 
cut balance. In this model the internal 
winding gear is replaced dith a rocker 
arm of conventional design. The cap 
jewel in the balance cock is held by 
spring friction a saw cut being made 
through the seat to give spring pres- 
sure on the friction. 

No. 28 2 — "The Trump, Waterbury, 
U. S. A., Series 1, W. W. Co. Trade 
Mark." An ingeniously designed watch 
for cheap manufacture. The duplex es- 
capement as used in the original Water- 
bury is about the only feature retained. 
About 18 size for special case made by 
same makers. 

No. 283" — Holley Watch Co., Jersey 
City, N. J. W. W. Co., Patented Duplex, 
Patents 1874, '78, '83, '84, '85, '86." 


"Holley Watch Co. About an 8 size 
similar in general construction to pre- 

No. 284 — "Waterbury, Trade Mark, 
U. S. A., Patented, 853467." About 14 
size three-quarter plate duplex escape- 
ment like preceeding but with 12 jewels 
and more semblance to conventional de- 

No. 285 — "Knickerbocker Watch Co., 
New York." "K. W. Co." About an 
18 size for special case similar in de- 
sign to No. 283. 

No. 286 — "N. E. W. Co." A skeleton 
plate and dial making the entire train 
visible through crystals on front and 
back of watch. Duplex escapement like 
other Waterbury watches. The Water- 
bury Watch Co. of Connecticut was in- 




corpoi-ated in 1880 changed to New Eng- 
land Watch Company in 1898 and in 
1912 failed, the plant being bought by 
Robert H. Ingersoll & Bi'other of New 
York City. 

No. 287 — "New York City Watch Co., 
Patent No. 526871." "Lever Winder." 
A stamped producet with much the gen- 
eral appearance of alarm clock finish. 
The wind is accomplished by moving 
the pendant back and forth giving a 

lever wind or as the English called it 
pump wind. See cut 159-34. 

No. 288 — "Robert H. Ingersoll & 
Brother." Stamped watch and case 
made first in 1892, by Waterbury Clock 
Company under contract for Robert H. 
Ingersoll & Brother of New York City. 
Sold first at one and one half dollars 
and later for one dollar. In 19 08 the 
Ingersolls bought the factory and busi- 
ness of the Trenton Watch Company. 
In 1914 they bought the New England 
Watch Company which had been the 
Waterbury Watch Company of Connec- 

No. 289 — "Mfg. by the Ansonia Clock 
Co., New York, U. S. of America, Pat. 
April 17, 1888." A stamped product of 
the character of alarm clocks — stem 
wind and stem set by pressing crown 
in against a spring which holds it norm- 
ally in winding position. See cut 159- 

No. 2 90 — "E. P. Bowman, Lancaster, 
Pa. No. 32." "E. F. Bowman." Three- 
quarter plate, 16 size, 21 jewels, stem 
wind compensated balance with timing 
screws. Breguet l^alance spring, no 
regulator and English type escape 
wheel. Ezra F. Bowman began making 
watches in 1880. W. H. Todd who had 
leen formerly superintendent of the 
Lancaster Watch Co. made the model 
and in 188 2 something over thirty 
watches were completed. In the sum- 
mer of 188 2 the machinery was sold 
out to the J. P. Stevens Watch Co. 

No. 291 — "J. P. Stevens & Co., At- 
lanta, Ga., 130, Stevens Patent." "J. 
P. Stevens Watch Co., Atlanta, Ga." 
Three-quarter plate, 16 size, 15 jewels. 
The regulator is actuated by a spiral 
cut in a disc, enabling very minute 
movement. The escape wheel is club 
toothed. The watch resembles in sev- 
eral respects No. 290 having been de- 
signed by the same man and made with 
much of the same machinery, in 188 4 
C. L. Hoyt succeeded W. H. Todd as 
superintendent. The Stevens Brothers 
sold their interest in the company to 
the heirs of J. C. Freeman in 1885 and 
the new company, D. N. Freeman & Co. 
failed in 1887. 

No. 292 — "Mclntyre." This watch 
was never put on the market. The ex- 
ample shown is one of several finished 
by C. E. DeLong who made the model 
and loaned by Edward R. Hills who 
bought out the other stockholders and 
owns the machinery which is said to be 
several steps in advance of anything 
before attempted in producing inter- 


changeable parts. The watch is 16 
size, bridge model, 21 jewels motor 
barrel, windiip indicator and quite as 
exquisite as the best Swiss product. 


Agassiz — 29, Wm. Anthony — 150, 
Arnold Chas. Frodsham — 133 — 145, 
Arnold Fordsham — 64, John R. Arn- 
old — 63 — 127, Thos. Arnold — 80. 

Baccuet — 7 7, Barrauds — 2 2 — 116, 
T. Betson — 2, B. Bonniksen — 98, Ld. 
Bordier — 115, Borle — 7, T. Brandt — 
68, Breguet — 31 — 44 — 61 — 111 — 15 3, 
Tlios. Buchanan — 19. 

Chas. Cabrier — 126, Thos G. Cathro 
— 58, Chevalier — 106, Jno. Clayton 
— 110, Constantine — 62, Wm. Cooper 
— 3 5, Jas. Cowan — 9, R. F. Cowderoy 
— 56, Andrew Crashaw^ — 101. 

.Jacques DeBon-149, Dent — 65 — 147, 
DePutter — 43, DesGranges — 3, Wm. 
Dixon — 144, Ewd. Dormer — 141, Dor- 
wes — 83, Ja. Duncan — 10 9, Dutertre 
— 32. 



Louis Eisenhard — 131, Jules Em- 
mery — 27. 

Finer and Nowland — 2 0, Fisher & 
Sons — 105, Chas. Frodsham — -132, 
Froidevaux — 7 6. 

George Graham — 10, Thos. Grignion 
— 12, M. Grossman — 135, Gudin — 74. 
Girard Perregaux — 12 8 — 143. 

Thom. Hamlet — 21, Rich. Holyer — 
40, Thos. Houghton — 11. 

Chas. E. Jacot — 13 4, Jeffreys and 
Flam — 57, Joseph Johnson — 18 — 140. 

Larpent & Jurgensen — 75, B. Law- 
ley — 130, Samson Leekey — 94, L'Epine 
— 95 — 122, Lepine — 34 — 114, Le- 
Roy — 52 — 69 — 85, Litherland Davis 
& Co. — 16, Johannes List — 70, Loehr 
— 103. 

James McCabe — 4 — 55, Mackenzie — 
14, Martineaux — 93, Gille Martinot — 
84, Benj. Maude — 46, H. L. Montan- 
don — 26, Moricand & DeGranges — 1;31, 

David Morice — 15, Thos. Mudge — 123, 
Jame Murdock — 8 6. 

James Nardin — 12 9 — 138, Nicod — 
12 0, Eardley Norton — 37, Nottnagel 
MontmoUin & Comp. — 81. 

Jaqs Oltramare — 104, Carl Er. Or- 
bin — 2 4. 

John Parker- — 79, Parkinson & 
Frodsham — 148, Patek Phillipe — 66, 
George Prior — 1. 

Quartier — 3 6, Oliver Quartier — 90. 

Robinson — 3 9, Wm. Robinson — 78, 
Rodin et Cie — 88, Romilly — 33, Thos. 
Russell — 142. 

Sabourin — 13, Samelius — 67, Sam- 
son — 117, Thom. Savage — 42, Joseph 
Sewill — 17, Jas. Shilling — 72. 

Tarts — 91, Robert Theurer & Fils — 
102, M. I. Tobias — 99, Thos Tompion 
— 151, W. Tomlinson — 100. 

W. J. Upjohn — 41. 

Vaucher Freres — 51, Vellerius — 25, 
Vuillamy — 59. 

Eric Wallerius — 23, J. Wilders — - 

Ferd. Zolling — 113. 


American Waltham Watch Company, 

159 to 190 inclusive. 
Ann Arbor Watch Company, 152. 
Ansonia Clock Company of America, 

Appleton Watch Company, 25 9. 
Auburndale Watch Company, 249, 250, 

Aurora Watch Company, 252. 
E. F. Bovi^man Watch, 2 90. 
Brooklyn Watch Company, 2 60. 
California Watch Company, 2 4 5. 
Chesire Watch Company, 258. 
Columbus Watch Company, 253 to 257 

Cornell Watch Company, 243, 244. 
J. D. Custer Watch, 158. 
Elgin National Watch Company, 191 to 

209 inclusive. 
C. Fasoldt Watch, 15 6. 
Fredonia Watch Company, 2 39, 240. 
Hampden Watch Company, 272. 
E. Howard Watch and Clock Company, 

210 to 213 inclusive. 
Illinois Watch Company, 223 to 231 in- 
Robert H. Ingersoll & Brother, 288. 
Jennet Watch, 154. 
Kelly Watch Company, 271. 
Keystone Watch Company, 266, 267, 

Melrose Watch Company, 220. 
Mclntyre Watch Company, 292. 
Newark Watch Company, 24 2. 
New England Watch Company, 28 6. 
New York Chronograph Watch Com- 
pany, 302. 263. 
New York City Watch Co., 287. 
New York Standard Watch Company, 

279, 280, 281. 
Otay Watch Company, 2 73. 
Palmer Watch Company, 275. 
W. Palmer & Co., 274. 
Peoria Watch Company, 241. 
George P. Reed Watch, 157. 
Rockford Watch Company, 24 6, 2 47, 

Seth Thomas Watch Company, 2 69. 
J. P. Stevens Watch Co., 291. 
Tremont Watch Company, 219. 
Trenton Watch Company, 276, 277, 

United States Watch, Marion, N. J., 

233 to 238 inclusive. 
United States Watch, Waltham, Mass., 

331, 322. 
Waterbury AVatch Company, 270, 28 2, 

383, 384. 


Verge — 1 — 2 — ^3 — 4 — 6 — 7 — 8 — 9 — 1 3 

— 20 — 23 — 24 — 25 — 31 — 32 — 33 — 34 

— 35 — 38 — 39 — 4 — 41 — 42 — 4 3 — 44 
— • 45 — 4 6 — 51 — 59 — 61 — 68 — 69 — 70 
— 72 — 73 — 74 — 75 — 77 — 79 — 80 

— 81 — 83 — 84 — 85 — 87 — 91 — 92 — 93 
— 94 — 96 — 97 — 98 — 100 — 101 — 105— 
106 — 109 — 110 — 113 — 115: — 117- — 118 

— 119 — 120 — 121 — 122 — 124 — 125 — 
126 — 13 6 — 148 — 14 9 — 150. 
Gylinder — 1 — 1 2 — 1 4 — 2 2 — 2 6 — 3 1. — 

57—62 — 67— 76— 82 — 103— 107 — 113— 

Ruby Cylinder — 60 — 63 — 111 — 116. 
Ruby Cylinder Breguet Type — 153. 
Virgule — 54 — 104. 
Rack Lever — 16 — 99. 
Duplex — 15 — 19 — 5 0. 
Chinese Duplex — 5 — 144. 
Chronometer — 17 — 48 — 127 — 128 — 

139— 131— 133— 137— 143— 152— 156 

Tourbillon Chronometer — 128. 
Debaufre-Garnier — 90. 
Chronometer-Lever — 8 9 — 1 5 2 . 
Debaufre-Houghton — 11. 
Karrusel Lever — 98. 
Seconds Beat Lever — 154. 
Lever —1 8 — 2 1- — 3 6 — 5 5- 

— 66— 7& — 86 — 95. — 98- 


7 S 9 To 

No. 15 6- 


138 — 139 — 142 

-56 — 58 — 64 
-99 — 102 — 

130 — 132 — 134 — 135 

— 145 — 146 — 154. 

Striking — 45. 

Repeating — 22 — 43 — 44 — 60 

— 81 — 8 3 — 85 — 87 — 9 6 — 100 

Alarm — 52 — 123. 

Calendar — 53 — 67. 

-61 — 76 



Calendar — 5 3 — 5 7 . 
8 Day Lever — 8 6. 
Knickerbocker Watch Co., 285. 
Lancaster Watch Company, 204, 
Manhattan Watch Company, 2 61. 
8 Day Verge — 

Independent Sweep Second — 27. 
Flyback — 29 — 30. 

Musical — 51. 
Decimal Dial — 97. 
Self Winding — 102 — 103. 
265. Pull Wind — 51. 

Pump Wind — 287. 
Transparent — 107. 
Automata Repeater — 119. 
Jump Figures — 139. 





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